Language and Linguistics


The Anatomy of A Dictionary Entry

With Samples Proposed for a Marathi-English Dictionary


1. Lexicography has been regarded, until recently, at best as a craft to be learned under a master or on ones own, at worst as harmless drudgery and hackwork. In India this still continues to be the prevailing view. Now another perspective has opened up that of thinking of lexicography as the application of linguistic theory to the writing of a reference guide to the vocabulary of a language. Some people even draw a distinction between lexicology the relevant branch of linguistic theory and lexicography its application to dictionary-making. Practising lexicographers may half resent this appearance of the linguist on the scene. After all (they may well ask) what is the use of fancy theoretical constructs where a robust common sense la Dr. JOHNSON and a sense of neatness and tiredness should be enough? They may, however, feel a bit reassured if the linguist could offer them help in making the dictionary even more neat and tidy and packing it with information that is even more varied and useful.


It seems to me that the best starting point for a meaningful dialogue (A phrase that a dictionary should promptly label as seminarese handle with care!) between the professional or amateur lexicographer and the linguist-lexicologist is the structure of a dictionary entry.


The value of a dictionary depends on the answers to these three questions:


(a)    What are the types of queries that the dictionary proposes to answer?

(b)   Does it supply information that is the best available to date and does it do it lucidly and relevantly?

(c)    Does it help the reader to retrieve this information with the minimum trouble? How accessible does its arrangement make it?


One would go a long way in answering the first and the last of our three questions by finding out whether an entry in the given dictionary has a well-dictionary structure at all and, if so, what that structure is like.


2. Let us begin by spelling out what the structure of an entry in a traditional dictionary of an Indian language looks like:

(a) entry word in the local script

* (b) transliteration in Roman or Devanagari

* (c) origin tag Sanskrit, Persian, English, etc.

(d) part-of-speech tag

* (e) subclass tag e.g. gender of a noun, transitivity of a verb

(f) string of glosses in the same language in a unilateral dictionary or in

another language in a bilingual dictionary - *with some rudimentary punctuational structuring (commas versus semicolons, for example, or numbers such as (1), (2) etc.

*(g) idioms and glosses of these idioms

*(h) citations from Literary texts chosen without any visible plan (such as

covering all the centuries or all the meanings)

*(i) etymology

(j) derivatives


Items marked above with an asterisk do not appear in all the dictionaries in cheaper commercial dictionaries most or all of them would be missing. The arrangement may, again, deviate some what from the above plan e.g. item (c) precedes item (a) in PLATTS A Dictionary of Urdu, Classical Hindi and English. Also the glosses (under items (f) and (g) may be in more than one language - e.g. Tamil lexicon gives a gloss in English as well as in Tamil and thus cuts across the distinction between unilingual and bilingual dictionaries. The language in which information under items (c), (d), (e), and (i) is supplied is usually in the same language as the glossing language under items (f) and (g). Thus MOLESWORTHs A Dictionary of Marathi and English gives such information in English. Finally, an entry may contain cross-references to other entries. Indian dictionaries do not seem to use this highly versatile device on a large scale.


An inspection of the above scheme suggests that there is room for improvement. Perhaps what we should do is, first, to ask ourselves what is the maximum amount of information that we can pack in a dictionary without turning it into an encyclopaedia? For any particular kind of dictionary this scheme may then be suitably adapted and pruned to suit the budgeting square inches, number and size of entries, and costs and to meet the needs of the particular kind or kinds of clients one has in mind. (Instead of vaguely thinking of the User of the Dictionary, it is better to look upon him as a client with a particular background, equipment, preferences, and so forth who has come to the dictionary-maker for consultation.)


What I said earlier about separating dictionaries from encyclopaedias perhaps calls for some elucidation. Let me quote H. W. and F. G. FOWLER from their Preface to the first edition (1911) of The Concise Oxford dictionary of current English:


The book is designed as a dictionary, and not as an encyclopaedia; that is, the uses of words and phrases as such are its subject matter, and it is concerned with giving information about the things for which those words or phrases stand only so far as correct use of the words depends upon knowledge of the things. The degree of this dependence varies greatly with the kind of word treated


The kind of questions raised by this last sentence can be illustrated as follows: Should an English entry on wife mention the prevailing assumption of monogamy? Should schoolteacher and secretary be described as primarily feminine in gender in English? Should users of English be alerted to the fact that spring, summer, autumn, winter, refer to the seasons of the northern hemisphere by default? And to the fact that the hedgehog and the unicorn are English fauna, the giraffe and the Hydra being exotic fauna? And to the fact that the hedgehog and the giraffe are of this world, the unicorn and hydra being of mythical worlds? And to the fact that there was only one of the species Hydra before Herakles killed it? Should lobster be defined as large marine stalk-eyed ten footed long-tailed edible crustacean with large claws formed by the first pair of feet, bluish-black before and scarlet after being boiled; its flesh is food (as the Fowlers do it in a dictionary addressed primarily to the native speaker or as shellfish with eight legs and two claws, bluish-black before and scarlet after being boiled its flesh as food along with a line drawing (as the advance learners dictionary of current English originally conceived as a guide to Japanese learners of English does it)? Or, again, as a large marine decapod crustacean (family Homaridae) commonly used for food; especially: one of a genus (Homarus) including the American lobster (H. americanus) and the European lobster (H. Vulgaris) of the Atlantic coasts and the very small Cape lobster (H.capensis) of Southern Africa (as the encyclopaedically biased Webster seventh New Collegiate does it)? Should the user be told that Hindi koyala refers to Eudynamis scolapaceus, L. and other songbirds of the same genus or that Hindi kapha is not only thick fluid discharge from throat at the time of coughing but also one of the three cardinal doas (see doa) in the ayurvedic system of medicine, comparable to phlegm in the Medieval European theory of humours and balgham in the Yunani system? Should an entry on a word meaning owl in an Indian language mention that it is inauspicious to Hindus and is proverbially afraid of daylight (divābhīta is also a synonym for an owl in Sanskrit). It is obvious that a dictionary will have to talk encyclopaedically as much about the things referred as about and their place in the culture that the language is a vehicle of, but it is equally clear that this encyclopaedic and ethnographic element must not squeeze out the properly linguistic information supplying which is the basic function of a dictionary.


A dictionary whose dominant orientation is linguistic would not neglect common and heavy-duty words like as, the set, go, hand in English by assuming that everyone knows all about them. (It all depends on who everyone is and what knowing on his part is.) Such a dictionary, moreover, will not be stingy in allotting space to plenty of examples from everyday usage not being satisfied with only a grudging literary citation or two reserved for high-prestige words like morn, consummation, incarnadine. Above all a linguistic orientation will underline the importance of consistent principles in the choice and presentation of items. Thus, if items from nonstandard dialects are to be included along with those from the standard variety, one would insist that a haphazard sprinkling of this forms with insufficient labelling will not do. The net of word-gathering will be cast evenly all over the area with the holes evenly wide! In the dictionary in its final shape a careful system of labeling will be introduced of the kind one gets in the critical apparatus of a carefully edited text. Assuming that the language has three nonstandard varieties A, B, C, besides the standard variety S, each item in all or some of its uses would carry one of the following labels ABCS, ABS, ACS, ABC, AS, BS, CS, AB, AC, BC, A, B, C, S. (Of course for economizing space the label that would appear most often could be left understood.) If the careful and extensive verification which this system must involve is not feasible for some reason, the linguist would stick to that variety or those varieties of the language which he knows most about. The test of relevancy for deciding on inclusion / exclusion of any kind of information should be uniform for all entries in a given dictionary.


While a dictionary is not a thesaurus or word-finder, it can take on some of the functions of a word-finder. Theoretically the dictionary and the word-finder are at poles apart. Once a form is identified, the dictionary supplies allsorts of information which includes the attribution of some recurring properties. The point of entry in a word-finder is, on the other hand, just such a property and items sharing this property are listed say, exclamations of grief, verbs taking two objects, synonyms of nadī river in Sanskrit, words in English relating to horse (mare, colt, filly, pony, neigh, pack, mane, etc.), words rhyming with sigh, words accented on the final syllable in a language with predominant penultimate accent, and so forth. How to arrange these entries in a word-finder is a vexed problem. It may be noted in passing that the nigaus, koas, dhātupāthas, and gaapaṭb has of ancient India were not dictionaries but thesauruses or word-finders of certain well-defined types, and that the thesaurus counterpart of an etymological dictionary is the historical and comparative word-finder (WALDE and POKORNYS Indo-European and EMENEAU and BURROWs Dravidian dictionaries, for example). Now, in a dictionary proper as distinct from a word-finder, it is often helpful to undertake some word-listing. A dictionary should do this, however, only so far as this promotes its primary function of explaining the uses of forms. Thus, instead of glossing colonel as next lower that a brigadier-general and next higher than a lieutenant-colonel, lieutenant colonel as next lower than a colonel and next higher than a major, etc. etc., it would make good sense to bring all those terms together in a single convenient place (say, in the entry on office) and send the user there through cross-references from colonel, major, etc. The common practice of huddling derivatives and compounds as sub-entries under the main word (carried to its logical extreme in MONIER-WILLIAMS Sanskrit-English dictionary) at the cost of some inconvenience or even bewilderment to the user has no other justification than its convenience for word-finding.


With these preliminary remarks, we are now ready to unpack an entry of the thoroughly unabridged dictionary.


3. If one thinks of a dictionary entry as an involved but abbreviated sentence, the entry-heading (or lemma or identification or storage address) constitutes its subject as it were and the body of the entry (or explanation of use or information stored) its predicate. Any matter extraneous to these two will be in the form of sub-entries (typically, for idioms) or interspersed elsewhere (typically as cross-references)


The entry heading will consist of: (1) spellings of various sorts, (2) identification tags, if any, when the spellings are not distinctive. These and the alphabetical arrangement is all the help the user gets in order to figure out for himself the correct address for the information he is looking for.


(1)               The item be it word or compound or derivative or idiom or abbreviation or suffix or whatever whose use is going to be explained is first spelled out at any or all of the following levels (with or without a list of variants):


(1a) conventional spelling


(1b) phonological spelling


(1c) Grammatical resolution into constituents, if any (wisdom into wise and

dom, took into past of take)


All this may be given a historical or temporal dimension by tracing these three backwards in time this amounts to a formal history or etymology of the word.


(2)               When there is homonymy of any sort (homography or homophony or both including grammatical homonymy), this is usually indicated by splitting the entry into separate successive entries often numbered serially


1date n. (fruit), 2date I n. (of a month, II v.

When there is polysemy of any sort (as with 2date Ii, with documents and with girls or boys as objects), the usual procedure is to subdivide the entry into parts often serialized in some way and often with labels like figurative


2date I n. 1. . 1.a. ; , . 2. ..

In a dictionary handling linguistically heterogenous items, additional diatopic tags (standard, Northern, Brahman use), or diatypic tags (elegant, literary, technical) may have to be added. The consistent use of a diachronic perspective throughout the body of the entry makes the dictionary a historical one.


The body of the entry is an elucidation of the functions or uses of the item heading the entry. It will consist of: (3) the use of conditioned formal variants (a before consonants, an before vowels) and the conditioning of formal variants in accompanying items (shake takes -en and not -ed as the past participle ending), (4) the grammatical function class and sub-class, and (5) the explanation of meaning which, of course, is the problematic soft core of the entry and the locus of the distinction between unilingual and multilingual dictionaries. This is what the user primarily comes to the dictionary for as opposed to (1) and (2) constituting the storage address.


(3)               Allomorphy of the item in question or of its accompaniments does not call for further comment beyond saying that this information is often woven into (1) (by spelling butter phonetically as b٨t ə where the asterisk stands for the potentiality of the linking r) or into (4) (by tagging a verb as verb irregular or verb of conjugation IV)

(4)               Most dictionaries now provide at least a broad function-class tag (noun masculine, noun plural, verb transitive VP 8 in the Advanced learners dictionary of current English ultimately inspired by PALMERS A Grammar of English words). Another format for supplying such information is providing carefully chosen examples (we supply books to the library and we supply the library with books under supply). This is especially needed in bilingual dictionaries where we certainly cannot assume that everyone knows all about this. It is obvious that such ventures have to be backed by a sound linguistic analysis and an intimate knowledge of the language.


(5)               Three main types of format have come into vogue over the centuries in the explanation of meaning:


(a) the defining or, more precisely, the definiens or the predicate of the definition

(cat billī, to run to progress by advancing each foot alternately never having both feet on the ground at one and the same time (compare to walk) X, Urdu (khitāb honorific title)


(b)               the description of usage, which is distinct from (a), though not always typographically distinguished from it (Hindi koyala kind of bird, Urdu aikh honorific title, English rummy name of a card game, Marathi vans used for calling or mentioning respectfully ones husbands sister, Marathi vāraen euphemism for mara)


(c)                the well-chosen example the kind we expect from an examinee when asked to used an expression in a sentence of his own or the well-chosen picture or diagram as in defining different kinds of knots or shades of colour (illustrations of both kinds provide a realistic sample context in which the item being glossed could properly be used)


Of course the three modes of bringing home to the user the use of words and phrases could be reduced to a single formula in the last analysis (a) being a special case of (c) and (c) being a special case of (b). In any case they have to be often combined (the definition of run given above needs some descriptive support like as used with a human or other two-legged subject; have can hardly be defined in Hindi without an example; in glossing Hindi pīnā in English as smoke (hookahs, cigarettes, cigars) we are in fact providing examples in an abbreviated manner; in describing a catapult as a Y-shaped stick we are presenting a miniature picture or diagram; etc.)



The supplementary information may include thesaurus-type lists of the following among others: idioms; synonyms, near-synonyms, and antonyms; correlated words (as in the example of ranks to be listed under officer discussed above).


4. This inward logical structure of the entry is made manifest to the user of the dictionary in various ways:

(a) By a careful step-by-step explanation in the introduction to the Dictionary of the different parts of the entry, of what is and is not included in each part (with appropriate examples extracted from the body of the Dictionary)

(b) By puntuational and other symbols; typography; and the lay-out of the entry.


Considering how important the contribution is that is made by typographical devices both to the articulation of the entry and to its condensation for the saving of space in order to make room for more information and to keep the costs down, perhaps the publishers would do well to try out different typographical formats in a sample fascicule and elicit comments from typical prospective users before deciding upon the final physical shape of the dictionary.


Of course there is more to a dictionary than the structure of its entries and the typographical format there are the selection and arrangement of the entries themselves and of the subdivisions within a single entry, the micro-structure of the explanation of use in uni-lingual and multilingual dictionaries, the balance between the encyclopaedic and the thesaurus elements of the dictionary on the one hand and its main linguistic core on the other, the distinction between synchronic and diachronic perspectives, and so on. But a clear grasp of the structure of an entry should provide an effective point of departure for the consideration of other problems.


5. Before moving on to the samples proposed for a Marathi-English dictionary that are designed to illustrate a wide variety of practical problems, one may usefully sketch in the very raison dtre of basic dictionary features. Why select these entries? What material goes into each entry and how will it arrange itself? How are the entries to be arranged and Why? The underlying theoretical considerations that a practical dictionary-maker cannot wholly lose sight of. Sound lexicography presupposes sound lexicology.


(a) A complete description of a language will list every form whose function is not determined either by structure or by a marker, it will include, accordingly, a lexicon or list of morphemes, which indicates the form-class of each morpheme as well as lists of all complex forms whose function is in any way irregular. (Such is the case, say, with conjunctions like in case, even though, even if; with adverbs like this way, at all, at least / most / best / worst / first / last; speech or verse fusions like dunno, wont, tis. Even with simple forms we need to be told, for example, which of these are nouns and which adjectives: coward, timid, male, yellow.) Indeed considering that any form which a speaker can utter only after he has heard it from other speakers, is irregular every morpheme is an irregularityand the reader of a linguistic description can know of its existence only if it is listed for him. The lexicon is really an appendix of grammar, a list of basic irregularities. (All quotes are from L. Bloomfield, Language, New York: Holt, 1933, 16.3 (3); 16.6 para 3.) Compare this with the relationship between Paninis sūtrapaha with various lists such as gaapāha, dhātu pāha.


(b) The description of language whether grammatical or lexical hinges on the sign mode that intervenes manifestation signals of speech (or writing) and the senses or things by way of interpretation. So a lexical entry needs to have a tripartite structure: the Formation component (functional and derivational category), the manifestation component (spoken and written spelling), and the interpretation component (intension meaning and extension meaning). Depending on which of these takes priority, lexicons can be divided into dictionaries (spelling), derivatories (function and derivation), and thesauruses (meaning).


(c) The basic consideration underlying the arrangement of these entries is to offer a form of storage that admits ready retrieval: typically access through a simple scanning procedure if not direct random access. In the case of a workable system of signals like language, one expects it to contain only a small number of signaling units. At the same an ambitious and versatile system like language needs to handle a large number of things signaled about indeed, in the case of language the entire content of the practical world that is infinitely varied. So manifestation spellings offer greater accessibility than interpretation meanings. The language users knowledge of functional and derivational categories is much more implicit than his knowledge of manifestation signals or even interpretation categories. So the spelling component permits greater ready access than either the formation component. Moreover, spellings can be listed in some convenient order, as, for example, alphabetically permitting a simple scanning procedure. (All quotes are from Bloomfield, * 10.3.) Dictionaries (from Renaissance Europe onwards) are easier to consult than derivatories (Chinese or Arabic traditional lexicons that list by radicals; Sanskrit dhātupāhas) or thesauruses (such as Rogets thesaurus inspires Lelpniz and Amarasiha). So a dictionary entry begins with a spelling, goes on to an indication of function and structure, and ends up with meaning.

6. A selection of words as used in contemporary Marathinamely, aga /āga, antaras āla, 1kavaā, 2Kavaā , goa, dahī, 1bhāga, 2bhāga, 1māraaen, 2māraen,1ve!d, 2ve!a, and abda (all substantives with the exception of 1, 2māraen verb transitive and intransitive)is taken up here for a descriptive treatment, i.e. neither historical nor rigorously analytic. This is not intended as a representative group; there is sufficient variety nevertheless so as to illustrate the handling of a wide variety of problems that present themselves to a practicing lexicographer.


An explanation of the typographical and other conventions will be useful both for understanding these entries and for its own sake.


The entry heading consists of the conventional spelling in the Devanagari script, the phonemic spelling in modified Roman, and, whenever the word (or stem) happens to be complex, an indication of the constituent elements in brace brackets { }. The inclusion of any item here and elsewhere in brace brackets suggests a cross-reference to the reader.


When two or more entry headings have the same conventional spelling, numbers are prefixed to the headingthis is also useful in giving cross-referencesthus, see 2marә sends the reader to the verb intransitive or see 2ve! to the noun : masculine.


Each entry consists of one or more paragraphs. Observations in the opening paragraph are valid for the others (if any) unless the contrary is indicated. The paragraphs other than the opening one (when there are more than one paragraph in the whole entry) will carry alphanumeric labels like l, la, lal, la2, lb, 2, etc. Observations in any labeled paragraph are valid, unless the contrary is indicated, for subsequent paragraphs if these carry labels that are extensions of the earlier label : thus, l governs la, lal, la2, lb, but not 2; la governs lal, la2, but not lb, 2; and so forth.


The body of the entry begins with a broad function-class label like :

Fa noun feminine of the -a declension

Fi noun feminine of the -i declension

M noun masculine

N noun neuter

VI verb intransitive

VT verb transitive

followed, where necessary, by an indication of paradigmatic peculiarities in ( ).


The explanation of meaning being offered in English is potentially divided into three partsthe second of which is enclosed in angle brackets < >. When the second part can be dispensed with, the < > stand empty. These three parts are respectively


(a) a description of usage including indications of typical collocations and cross-references introduced by cf., syn., opp. etc. to related items;

(b) a gloss formally identifying the referents (e.g. with biological taxonyms) and informally suggesting a semantic analysisany additional explanations, often of an encyclopaedic nature being set off with a dash but still within < >;

(c) one or more translation equivalents that would be acceptable in contemporary English.


Obviously (b) and (c) are intended fro different purposes; (b) will be more useful to the English-knowing reader who wants to find out what exactly the Marathi entry heading means or refers to; (c) merely tells the reader what an English speaker will say in a parallel situation and thus will be more useful to someone using the dictionary for learning English better.


The explanation of meaning is not really complete without the examples that follow exhibiting the entry heading in a variety of contexts and collocations.


Some entries will have one or more of the following three additional paragraphs marked with one, two, three asterisks respectively and numbered consecutively with the preceding :


* idioms beginning with the entry heading

** all other idioms

*** listing of words of related meaning and use with some explanation


in these three especially the lastthe dictionary is taking on the functions of the thesaurus or word-finder. The subdivisions in these three are punctuated with parallel marks ||.


The whole entry is interspersed with additional explanations in ( ) which are applicable to the immediately preceding item unless the contrary is stated. Thus if three translation equivalents are presented thus :


x, y (Brit.) z (US)

this meansy is British, z is US-American, and x is without any limitation.


A number of conventions are used for saving space;

x/y z means xz, yz; as in : to ithә ahe/hota

x [y] z means xz, xyz; as in : [semi] vowel

ditto means the same explanation of meaning as the preceding item.


The entry heading is abbreviated thus : the degree mark o is used when the whole of it or a fragment thereof stands attached to the rest and the curly dash ~ is used when the whole of it stands detached. In the case of verb entries -ṇǝ is deleted in interpreting o thus oun, oto under marṇǝ stand for marun, marto. Other such shortenings with variable values are :


@ any of the endings a, -i, - ә, -e, -ya, -i; -o, -e depending on the gender, number

(and person) agreement.

A, B, C any suitable nominal expression referring to a person (including personal

pronouns) in the appropriate case.

X, Y, Z any suitable nominal expression referring to a non-person, usually

inanimate, in the appropriate case.

P, Q, R any suitable clause with a finite verb.

V any suitable verb stem or any suitable phrase closing with a verb stem.

N any suitable cardinal numeral.

HIM, HIS, ONEself may be replaced by any suitable expression (her, my, etc.)

depending on the context.


Italicizing any word or abbreviation draws the readers attention to the introductory pages of the dictionary where an explanation of its precise use would be offered.


A list of the abbreviations and specially used words appearing in the sample entries (in addition to the function-class labels listed earlier) follows :


also: in addition to the literal meaning

animal name

as : introducing typical contexts

Brit. British usage


cf. compare the following related but non-synonymous item(s)

collocation(s) textual context only (cf. collocation(s))

colloq. colloquial

comp. comparable to


customary (among speakers of Marathiunless the contrary is indicated)

context textual as well as situational context (cf. collocation(s))


ditto (already explained)

El English equivalent acceptable to the native speakers in an Indian context

(local colour) (not Indian English)

eleg. elegant

esp., esp. especially

etc., etc. etcetera, and the like (as in x / y / etc.).

euph .euphemistic

fig. figurative


H. Hindi

head : (adjective or adverb) when used with the following as head.

hist. used in talking about historical matters (period colour)

iron. ironical

joc. jocular use


lit. literary (not : literal)

loose in loose usage

med. Medicinally in India

negating implying or expressing negation (of context)

negative with explicit negative expression (of collocation)

not used as a warning to the reader what follows is not recommended

obj : with the following as typical object(s)

obsolescent nearly obsolete (totally obsolete items or usages have no place in a

description of contemporary Marathi)

often weaker than usu.

opp. opposite.


o/v : as object to the following verb(s)

Pers. Persian

pl. plural; in pl. used with the appropriate plural form

plant name

pop. Popular, non-technical

prov. Proverbial

resp., resp., respectively

Skt. Sanskrit

sg. singular


specif. specifically, specified

subject: with the following as typical subject(s)

s/v : as subject to the following verb(s)

syn : synonymous in this use with the following

tech. Technical (cf. pop.)




untranslated not translated directly


US US-American usage

usu. Usually (cf. often)


7. Thirteen sample entries now follow :


Ӑ/Ӑ ə̆ŋg [ ə̆] / ʹ ăo/ʹ ao/oŋŋ (only oŋg before[semi-vowel) N cf. әrir, dehə̆, kaya,dhәәŋgakhandya-, sәrvaŋgə̆.


1.                  ʹang/0 ŋŋ preferred; with2-c@ <body of a human being, esp. trunk as opposed to head and limbs > body (in many collocations untranslated). Acә~lәvčik ahe a has a lithe body; A is lithe, Acә~ duktә ahe/ taplә/gar pәḍlә/taṭhlә ahe/ {zәḍ} zhalә ahe A is aching / sore allover, A has got a temperature, ditto: A feels cold to the touch, As body has turned rigid, A stiff allover. Acә /#/ ~/#/ heәrә} ) A becaome stiff all over. Acә~amblә ({ambә}). ~ {murә}. Acә~moum alә A started feeling / began tofel feverish. X ogavәr kahә etc, ) to put up wIth the X [without having it treated]. ~ moun/ zhaun/ rakhun kam kәrә to work hard, to break ONES back in working / ditto / to spare oneself in working, not to strain oneself. Acә ~luә pәlә (A suffered from waxy flexibility/ cerea flexibilitas). Ača 0 gac@ aka/ khurda/ paizhal@ A was doubled up in pain / a found himself hardly in one piece (after a tiring journey, etc, / A was bathed in sweat. Ača o gala yet @/ bәst @ hot @, X Ača 0 gabә robәr/ ogc @ ahe (X: garment) x A [snugly], X is [of] the right size for A. X Ačas0gilagl @ (X: food, a change of air, etc. job, action, etc.) X suited A, X benefited As health, X benefited a, X was good for him, X did A some good. A X0 gilavun ghetnahi A fails to show the benefit of X o. gapeka {boŋga} astə̆ Anә Bsahi aplya 0 gači savli keli A put himself between the sun and B, (fig) A devoted HIS life to protecting sheltering B. Ača 0 gat X bhinlƏ (X: poison etc) X spread throughout As body


1a. < body of human being as it presents itself to others, esp. trunk as opposed to head and limbs> person ( in many collocations untrnslated): skin. dhәә/akә to fill out, to put on flesh/ to become thinner, to lose flesh, Aa~alә ahe, A 0 gane bhәrl @ ahe, Acә ~ sulә ahe A has filled out, A has put on flesh. Ača 0 ga {ga{vәr} dhavun zaә. Ača 0 gavәr hәtyare/ kepәe hot@ had weapons/ clothes on HIM, a had weapons / clothes on HIS person. ~ dhәu (subi : female,cf. aqŋgho) to take bath. Acә sәgә/ әrdhә ~ bhazlә a was burned all over/ over half of HIS body. o gca/ 0gaca mә (skin dirt) dirt. A aplya 0 g[a] ca mә dear nahi also (cF. čikku) A is stingy. Ac ~ coә/lavә )X: oil, soap etc) to rub/apply X all over A, to rub a with X. 0gavәrce kes body hair:. Acә ~khaztә ahe a feels itchy. Acә ~ phulә his skin got chapped / cracked (the latter more serious). Ac ә ~phull ә ahe A has a rash lal over (as: in an eruptive fever). Ača 0gavәr ag/ pho/ {kaa} / et. uhl @ A got spots/ bboils / goosepimple [s] {on HIS skin]. 0 gacә {sai} nighalә the skin peeled off. ma#z̆ha 0 gala gham phula A was in sweat all over; A was in cold sweat (in fear). {ocәi} s/ la zaә.


1b euph esp. some set collocations.

1b1 < breast[s] of a woman > o gavәr {pәdәr} gheә 0 gaver piә to suck to feed at the breast,. o gavәr pazә to give suck to, to feed at the breast to nurse. ogavәrc@ toә to wean. Ača o gavәr mul ahe A is a Mursing mother. ogav әrcә {dudh 1a}


1b2 syn: әrir, dehә < utero-vaginal canal > Ača 0gavәr [un/cә] zatә ahe (vaginal discharge menstaltrual, morbid, during pregnancy, or at the onset of or after labour,cf, via dhup i) there is a show (menstrual or at the onset of labour), A is having a bleeding (esp. non-menstrual ). ~ baher alә (prolapsusuteri) there was a falling off of the womb.


1b3 syn: әrir, dehǝ̆< rectum> Acә ~ baher alә (cf. hәgeru) (prolapsus ani) A had a prolapse of the rectum.

1c < seLf, self hood, person, esp. I seat of [leagal[responibility> ONEself in many collocations untranslated X 0gavәr svәtavәr gheә (X: Kam, etc. ) to take X upon ONEself, to assume responsibility for [doing] X. X Ača 0gavәr pәḍhl@ (X: job,, merchandise, etc. ) A was stuck with X. X. Ača 0gavәr/0 gai / A vәr al @ betl @ ekl@ (X: decision, trick, deal etc. , verbs in ascending order of seriousness) X landed A into trouble. brought A to grief, X backfired on A (contrary to As intent). 0 gabaher/0 gaveg @ kәrә/ ṭakә/ ṭakә to wash ONEs hands of , to get out of to refuse [to accept], to back out of. A ča 0 gala/ APa dhәs lagli A sustained a personal loss. 0 gavәr bandhlә built a house on HIS own. 0 gca dhәni (self-employed or with a private incomer) ONEs own master. 0 gc@ lihar (author of a will, poem etc. in autograph). Ala 0 gavәr pәyse die lent money to A without any security (as: wages before the job is done. ) Ača 0vәr / Avәr bazu ali uiәli A got the worse of it. A was worsted (in an argument/etc.,) {0udhar}. Bne Ača 0gavәr pәyse hecle/(hevle) hote B let A keep the money to be repaid later / A owed B (the) money.

2 0gc @ by the side of 0gac@ .< nature of a person, esp innate nature> nature, character. 0 gč i kәla innate skill. A 0gc@ kәlavәnt/ kәlpәk/ duǝṣǝ̆/ etc. ahe (syn:{ba} ac @ A is an artist/ imaginative/ malicious/ etc. by nature. Ač a 0gi/0gatX bhәrl@ khiḷll @ ahe (X: fault) A is X-ridden, A is riddled with X. Ača 0 gi/ 0gat X ahe (X: good. bad quality) A is X (dbj.) A has X (sb.) [in HIM] there is X in A,.


2a 0 gc@ (which is an integral part, etc ) 0gcә {kulup} (built-in-lock) . 0 gca zhә ra sYn : { ivәntǝ̆} zhәra(not seasonal). 0gcә kәpa (cupboard built into the wall). 0 gca daa (handle carved integrally, not attached ).


2b < marked ability in a particular sphere of activity> aptitude, talent, flair. Ala Xcә ~ ahe/ nahi A has a/no talent for X. Xat~ dakhәvnә to show a skill/an aptitude for X.


3.                  eleg.lit < constituent of a whole > part, portion, branch. {cәturәngәǝ̆} sena. ar 0 (in chess, the four classes of pieces- pawns, horses, camels, elephants, resp. pawns, knights, bishops, rooks- other than the king and the vizIer- i.o. queen). Prәdhan/gәvṇ~principal/subsidiary part/element. ticә әŋg{әn̆} -әŋgǝ̆ /{ әŋgǝ̆ -prәttyәŋgǝ̆ bhizlә (every part of of her person was wet) she was wet all over.


3a cf. bazu< [partfacing] a specific direction> side. X ča pučhča 0gala at the front/ in front of X. X ča ari/sә gya 0gala on all sides of/ all around X. uzvya 0 ganә from the right. A č a oganә (also# fig) to wards A (as of: sympathy, etc.) avya 0gavә r zhopl @ lay/slept on HIS left side. Ača avya 0gala zhopl@ lay/slept to the left o f A, As lsft. Ala eka 0gala ghee to take A aside/ to one side.


3b syn: upaŋǝ̆ < subsidiary part or appendage>. {vedaŋgǝ̆} . vivahat hom ha mukkahy ǝ̆, iter kevә 0gә {hom} is the main thing in a wedding, the rest are frills( colloq.) / subsidiary


3c aspect, side. {sәŋgi:t} ači 0gә (aspects of music {lәy}, {svәr} etc.),


4 cf. lәkṣǝ̆< participation, responsible involvement, esp. not widely known> hand. Acә Xmәdhe ~ hotә/ nә vhtә A had a/no hand in X, A was/ wasnt [a] party to X. Anә Xmәdhe~ ghatlә A took part in X. Anә Xmә dhun~ kaḍhlә A withdrew from X. ~ lәpәә to disclaim/ conceal ONEs part.


4a < advantageous acquaintance with person in authority>contact[s], influence, connections. Acә sәrkarat/ dәrbarat~ ahe A has contacts in the Government/ Court.


5 ~ ghasә to sustain personal loss (for the sake of X/A). ‖ ~ coә1 to duck (from a blow), to shrink (from a collision), to make ONE self look small (out of shame etc.). ~ corun zaә to squeeze [ONEself ] (through an opening ). 2 cf. {0 cor} to shirk (from doing ONEs best). ‖ ~ zhakә 1{~1a} to cover ONEself [up] (just enough for modesty), to throw something on {~1a} to pull ONEs skirt bouse/etc., down ( as: a woman rearranging her clothing for modesty). 2. syn {~4} lәpәvә ~ zhaә 1 (subj: dog, etc.) to shake ONEself. 2 to strain ONEself. 3 to deny ONEs involvement/ guilt ~akә 1 to lose flesh. 2 to throw ONEself. down as: child in tantrum). 3 (syn:pәә ) to lie down, stretch out ( as: for a brief rest). ‖~ dakhәvә 1 to show talent/ promise. 2 (usu. in negative collocations to show ONEs hand (Brit.), to tip ONEs hand (US) (in some activity). ~ moә 1 see {~1}. 2 syn: {~5} coә ~ rakhә 1 see {~1}. 2syn: {~5} corә 3 to take care of ONEself, ONEs own interests. ~ savәrә 1 to walk steadily (as: with a toddler). 2 to put on flesh again(as: in convalescence). ~ savrun bәә1 syn: {0i} pәsә (to sit compactly, opp, to sit sprawling). 0gakhali pәә1 syn: {0i} pәә 2 (subj: woman) Ača 0 gakhali pәә syn: Ala Ogavәr ghe ә to let A make love to ONEself . 0 gakhaLi ghalә (subj: male) to take as a mistakes.


** 6 X Ača 0gai/gavәr aI @ 1 (X: heavy food) X made A drowsy. 2 (X: action) see {~lc} . B Ača 0 ga{vәr} [dhavun] ala / gela B rushed at A. ‖ Ača 0gat{vat} / varәirl@ ‖ Ača 0 gavәrun{varә} gelә ‖ Ača 0 gat [varә] galә / irlә /sәcarlә ahe A is possessed; A is acting as if possessed. Ača 0gat X alә / irlә ahe (X: name of spirit, fig desire etc.) A is possessed by X. 0 gači savli kә rә ({~1}). ‖ ti*papә }zhala.

ӟֻ әntәr sal /ă0 {әntәr, sal} Fitech.

1< cortex, inner layer of the bark, typically the med. prized part of the plant> inner bark.

2 syn: {әntәstvәča} < dermis>.


1 ֛ kәva{kәvi-a} M animal name, cf. kәbutәr, any of various smaller species of family Columbidae. all fruit-eating wild birds small game, specif.

1 Urdu cittā fāxtā < Streptopelia chinensis, (Gmel.) Scopoli= Turtur surantesia, Gmel; of il omen if it enters a house for Hindus> Indian spotted /speckled dove.

2.                  Urdu dhaur fāxtā < S. decaoto, Frivaldszky, proper; larger, lighter-colored>Indian ringdove.

3.                  < s. risoria. , L. + T. risorius:,l; buff-colored of se. Europe and Asia > [common] ringdove.

4.                  lal~, syn: hola.

4a Urdu īn , fāxtā <S. senegalensis, L., cambayemsis, Gmel.=T. cambayensis, Gmel.,; smaller, brown> Indian brown dove.

4b Urdu totrā fāxtā <Oenopopelia tranquebarica, Hermann: brown-red trainable> red turtledove.

2 ֛ kəvəa {k əvi,-a} M joc., contemptuous< > poetater.

š go[ǝ̆]Fi


1. cf. kətha, kəhai, həkigət, Kissa, akkhyayika, dəntǝ̆-kətha, o/v saŋgə < account of an incident, either fictions or fiction like in interest, whether told informally (as: in entertaining children) or composed s a piece of folk or artistic literature> story, tale, (lit and in some set collocations). ~ ithe səmpət nahi akhi puhe ahe the story does not end here: there is more [of it]. urleli ~ udya saŋgen Ill tell you the rest of the story tomorrow. ai, məla ~ saŋg tel me a story, grandma. ivaiča 0i the stories about Shiva. ramači ~ the story of Rama. mohya lokanča choya 0i little known stories about well known people~ rəcə to make up a story (fictitious) . 0itl@ mulga/ manzər the boy/cat in the story.


la syn. tech: kəthanək < account of what happens in a fictional piece of literature, a stage play, etc. > story, plot, məla tya kadəmbəriči / siennači~ saŋg tell me the story /plot of the nove/ film, tell me what happens in the nove/ film.


1b pop., syn: {ləghukətha}, o/v lihə


2a cf. bhag, prəsəŋgəhǝ̆, mathiti: s/v hoə, ghədə mahit əə, oəkhə, etc., o/v kərə, saŋgə, taə, etc., often omissible< the incident, the action, the fact in question, what has been told, etc., > thing, matter (both more often replaced by it, that, etc.). hou/ ghəu nəye ti ~ te zhal @ ghəḍli@ the thing that/ what should not have happened has happened. mi sangitleli~/sangitlelə tu kel@ s ka? did you do the job that/ what I told you to? ~ ghəli təi/zəsə ghəḍləl təsə saŋg tell me the incident the way it happened. Hi,~ he mi tal@ I guessed as much. amča izobarča veči ~ let time tell you something from your grandfathers time. ~ nighali mhəum saŋgto since the matter has come up, let me tell you the whole story. ri: məntanči ~ nirai ahe as for the rich, that is a different matter/ story. i~A/Xči tic [~] B/Yči what is true of a/ x is also true of B/Y. to lac gheto hi~ / he mi oyanni pahil@ ahe he accepts bribes I have seen that with my own eyes. va-və ḍlam-pasum calət aleya 0i the practices handed down from our forefathers. hi məla nə pənari ~ ahe this is something I cannot te accept.

2b colloq., syn: vəstu2.

2c colloq., syn: čiz 2.

3a < reference, mention>. X/Ači ~ kahə/kərə to make a reference to X/A, to bring up the subject of X/A

3b oṭi pl. syn: gəppa (1gppǝ̆}), gəppa-0i 0ṭi kərə to chat. [mohmohya] 0i krəə /saŋgnə to talk big (US). Ala 0ṭi ikəve also often iron. (to tender advice to A patronizingly without being in the position to do so).

/0 == dəhi N (pl. 0 hyə obl. 0hya), usu. in sg. syn: dədhi (lit.) Skt dadhi, H. dahī f. dudh *** 5, {virəə}, pənčǝ̆-gəvvyǝ̆; o/v, s/v {virəzə}


1 < milk food, of custard like consistency and [sub] acid taste, produced by curdling warm milk using a lactic acid starter with cultures of Lactobacillus spp and Streptococcus spp., typically L. bulgaricus in S. India and S. thermopiles in N. India-also used med. and as base for producing l oi 1, tak, tup, čəkka; comp yog[h] urt > dahi (EI), curd {s] (EI, otherwise a wider term). sayicə~ creamy dahi ( comp. sour cream). 0 hyatlə pai whey (actually a wider term). 0hyala pai suṭlə a lot of whey separated from ~ (sign of poorly made/ preserved~). 0hyatl @ (head: koimbir, etc., salads, sauces; with~ added). 0 hyači kəvi (unbroken lump as opposed to whey / scrambled mass). 0 hyači kəvi/ ~ mo1 @ lost the consistency and got scrambled). 0 hyači kəvi ghal can I have some ~? ~ phə sphəslə/ čitavlə/ bolə see phəsphəsə, etc. Ača hatavər ~ ghalə (to offer a little dahi to Acustomary where A is a parting member of the family or a parting guest who one hopes will return).


2 ~ khau ki {məhi} khau əsə Ala zhalə A could not make up his mind as to which of two things to do; A wanted to have the cake and eat it too.


1 Ӑ bhaŋg M o/v : kahə, paə < parting of the hair- frowned upon in males among orthodox Hindus> [avikəe/ mədhe] ~ paə /kaḍhə to part the hair [ in the left/ middle]. ~ phala (the parting became more prominent because of loss of hair along the line).

2 Ӑ bhaŋg Fa plant name

1 cf, tag, əmbai; Ski. bhagā, vijayā, H. bhānga, gājā, Persian bang, Arabic aī < Cannabis sativa, L. = C. indicia, L; tall, erect, annual, dioeciously herb- cultivated, used med., source of fiber for canvas, tarpaulin: gum; narcotic and intoxicant substances> [Indian] hemp, bhang, cannabis.


2 o/v: gheə (consume,), , ghoə (prepare), cəḍhəvə (make stronger). < pounded green or dried shoots leaves, flowering tops of ~ 1 chewed, drunk, or smoked for narcotic or intoxicant effects, sacred to Shiva > bhang, hemp, cannabis, hashish.) 0eči goi (ball made for chewing). al ~ cəḍhli a got intoxicated with bhang.


2a syn: ghoa, thəai, o/v piə (drink) < infusion with milk from ~ 2, mildly intoxicant, coolant >


3 0 get tus (said of a {satvik} person in normally unpromising environment).***4 {~2, 2a} should be distinguished from the following in roughly ascending order of strength: gana (dried pistil late flowering tops, with resinous content, smoked) marijuana, cannabis.. kusumba (infusion of green tops with pepper etc. for drinking).. čərəs (dried resin separated from young pistil-late shoots and flowering tops, smoked for strong narcotic effect) həi (dried leaves or seed husks).

ָ / 0 == marə {mərə causal } VT


1 cf marə marək ( adjective).


1a often distinguished from {~za} as: har/ivanii ~, 0 run akŋə < > to kill, slay (lit); murder. Anə gail 0lə/gay marli(A : human, animal; cf. { ~ 2a} ) A killed/slaughtered the cow. ramanə ravala 0 lə Rama slew Ravaa. ətruce pace lok 0 le 500 of the enemy were killed. heku 0 aycə əcdh (medicine for killing bedbugs) bedug-killer. 0 u kin vva n əru əsa nirdhar the resolve either to kill or be killed/ o do or die. Ala bndukinə~ to shoot A [down] [with a gun].


1b obj: strong smell, taste, pain, feeling, etc. < to eliminate or diminish > to suppress/ deaden/kill. bhuk/təhan~ to suppress pangs of hunger / thirst; (to let hunger/thirst remain unsatisfied till it is forgotten) to get past eating / drinking.


1c cf. kaə, {au} kərə; obj: player or piece in certain games< to overcome and render ineffective in the play> to take / capture (chess piece), to trump (card), to knock/get out (player of opposite team in khokho, etc.) Anə Bc@ pyadə/ ekka 01@ A took Bs pawn/ trumped Bs ace.


2 cf, thokə, haṇṇə; mat, mara (both nouns).

2a cf. kaə, kuə, čechə, piə, bəəvə; səəkə; obj. (always marker with la): person, animal< to exert physical violence, esp. by hitting, upon> to strike, beat, hit, thrsah (intensely). A ə Bla phar 0lə A beat B soundly, A gave B good thrashing. Ala Xvər~ (X: body part) to hit A on the X. hatanə ~ to strike[ with ONES fist], to spank (with the flat of ones hand). lathenə ~ to kick. kahin ̆ǝ / čhəḍinə /dəganə ~ strike/ hit with stick/cane/ stone (either by throwing or striking) Anə gaila 0lə (cf. {~la}) A hit beat the cow. Acə ok ~ (hist.) to behead, execute. 0un pibhus kərə to beat unmercifully/ into a jelly/ to a pulp.


2a 1 fig., obj: person < to make ineffectual> to cripple, strike [down]. Ala pəyanə 0lə killed A with money. Ala vyəŋganə 0lə the physical handicap struck him [down].


2b obj. never with la.

2b 1 cf. ləgavbə bhəkavə, obj: blow; weapon, missile< to cause(blow) or to use (weapon, missile) with violence- upon person, object> to strike, hit, wield. Anə Bča

okyat/Bla thəppəḍ/kahi 0li A gave B a blow / slap [on the head], A hit B [on the head ] with a stick. Ane BčA thobait/ ri: mukhat oli ({thoba}). Al h ya ~ to hit / fetch /catch A blows with a cane. Ala dəgə ~ (cf. {~2a}) to throw a stone at A (may be ahit or a miss). Xla cabuk ~ to hit X with a whip , to use the whip on X. bənduk ) ayla/ calvayla ikl @ learned to use a gun (cf. Ayər bənduk / goizhanə / caləvə to fire [ a gun/ a bullet] on A). təlvar~, dhar~ (obsolescent) to wield a sword, (fig.) to wield the sword mightily, to do mighty deeds; (fig) to perform great exploits.


2b2 cf. hokə, haṇṇə, obj: solid object hit or thrown, liquid in jet or spray < to send with great force>. lakḍat khia/pacər ~ to drive a nail/ wedge into wood. əvədh ~ to spray insecticide/ etc.


2b2b usu. in set collocations< to perform vigorously, animatedly, with despatch, etc.> to make, have, do, play, etc. aroi deə /~hokə to let out a cry/ shout. {hak}~ to call out (cf. hak deə to acknowledge a call by shouting back). ii [] i ~ to whistle loudly. {bəyhək/oma/ tan/thap/ bə hai/veh/ hak } ~ gəppa/ zor/ bəyhəka (all pl.) ~ ({gəppa, zor, bəythək}). soŋgyanca av ou ya ek les have a quick game of pachisi. {ləghvi} ~ (slang) to have a slash (Brit. slang).


2c cf. zhoe bəəvə, subj: rain, obj. dispended with < > to beat [down] ghərača pə čimeča əŋgala pavsanə/ payanə 0lə the rain beat: on the western side of the house.


3. colloq. cf hokə, obj. never with la, usu,. in set collocations< to obtain by some smart or determined action > to get, have, take, make win, steal. məa ~ to enjoy oneself hugely. sigareca dəm/ zhurka ~ to take a drag / puff at the cigarette. Kusti ~ to win the wrestling bout [quickly]. car tas zhop 0li grabbed / snatched four hours sleep (in spite of adverse circumstances). zəra cəha/ soa 0u ya lets go and have a quick cup of tea / bottle of pop (comp. to knock back a drink). pəhila nəmbər ~ to get/ win first place. nəpha~ to make a big profit (by dubious means) (comp. to make a killing). paki/ghəḍ ḍya ~ to steal knock off (colloq.) the wallet/ watch.


*4. 0un (syn: səkun, rəgun, dabun, copun, all colloq., with verb) in plenty, like mad, anything. tyanə məla 0 un ivya dilya he cursed / abused me up and down. otyca hat dh ərəvto pəboltyacə toṇd dhərvət nahi prov.}



**5 Ača gəyat X~to get rid of X on to A. Ači {gad} ~ not eleg. (to perform pederasty with A in the dominant rle). gav ~ to loot/ ransack a village. təlvar/ dhar {~2b1} ‖ Ača mathi ~ to thrust/ impose X on A maa ~ ({mai}). melelyala ou nəye dont strike a dead man / a man when he is down. va`to harass the roads to do highway robbery. ‖~0un neə {1ve 2al}.

2 ָ / 0 marə {1marə}VI usu. in set collocations. subj: smell pain shade trace <to be / become strikingly perceptible>. ithə kəsl@ təri vas/ gha0ət ahe there is some kind of smell / stink around here, it smells / stinks around here. maha pahit kə /cəmək ) 0li I felt / to a [shooting] pain in my back. X mədhe Yči {čhəa} / čhaya/ hak 0te there is an air/ a trace/something of Y in X.


1 ===ve Fa (with 2-a, 2-i, 2-c @ ) cf. 2 ve, prəsəŋgǝ̆, səməy, 2ghəi, ka khep, vəkhət, 0prəsəŋgǝ̆


1 < point or span of time marked on an axis as before or after or overlapping with another, time as countable, French fois (as opposed to: temps)> time (countable). hi pəhilic~ this is the first time. prəttyek/dər 0i/khepela every time. maglya /puhlya 0i/ khepela on the previous/ next occasion, before/ later. kiti 0a/ kitida? how many times? divsatun ek/don~ 0a evt@ has one/ two main meals a day. {veovei/ velovea}. No la N times.


2 < point or span of time when something happened/ happens regularly / will happen or when some state of affairs obtained/ will obtain and specif. as such > time. evayči~zhali [ahe] it is meal time now, dinner is ready. evayča 0i at mealtime [s]. evayča ~ əi/houn geli it is past meal time. paheči/ səkači/ duparči/ səndhyakači/ ratri či~ ([pəhat/ səkaetc resp.) tinhisanz[e]i~({tinhisanza}) dusk. səkači ~ hoti it was morning (at that time). ek~ əi hoti ki P there was a time when P, time was when P (lit.) g ərdiči~ rush hour. gəḍbəḍiča 0li at a busy hour. kamači~ working hour. zhopayči ~ bedtime. gnai ~ the wedding hour. pəri:keči ~ the time of the examination/ test; the hour of trial (point), testing time(span). səŋkəača 0li in the hour of need, when ONE is in [real] trouble. gaiči ~ hot ali it is almost / nearly time for the train/ bus [to arrive/ to depart]. sinemača 0a showing times (at a cinema house). amča azobanča 0 i goṣṭə (cf. ka) let me tell you something from our grandfathers time/day [s] hr[le] lya/ saŋgitr [le] lya 0li at the appointed time. to vistəv pevət hota; tyac 0i .. he was lighting a fire; at the same time/ just at that time.. hi Va yči ~ ahe nahi this is / isnt time to V/ for Ving. Ala Vayči~ ali it fell to As lot to V, A had to V.


2a cf. prəsəŋgǝ̆ <point or span of time characterizable by some quality or valueand specif. as such > time, situation. əa 0li at a time like this. bhəltya 0i at an inopportune moment, at the wrong time; at an unearthly hour. itki ~ yeipəryyəntǝ̆ tumhi svəsthǝ̆ bəslat? did you do nothing until things had reached that point/ had gone that far? ant/thəǝ̆/allhaddyək ~ a quiet/ cool/ pleasant hour [of the day]. cornice ~ (suitable for thieves activity). to ithe bəsla tər//təri ck ~calelə // colla əstə It will // would not matter if// even if he sits // were to sit here . ek~ əi yeil ki P a time will come when P.


2a1 < > time, occasion, situation. vahdivsača 0i/ prəsəŋ gi on the occasion of the birthday. anəndac@ ~ / prəsəŋgǝ̆ happy/ joyous occasion. əa 0i/ prəsəŋgi tumhi kay kə ral? what will you do in a situation like that? 0enusar/ prəsəŋganusar as the occasion demands. ~ ? prəsəŋgǝ̆ al@ mhəe if the occasion arises. oi/ prəsəŋǝ̆ gi/0prəsəŋgi / prəsə gala if the occasion arises / demands. ~ / prəsəŋgǝ̆ pəl @ al@ tər ditto.~ / prəsəŋ gǝ̆/ 0prəsəŋgǝ̆ al@cr tər təs~ / prəsəŋgǝ̆ al@ tər if necessary; if it comes to that, if comes to the push, when the chips are down (the last three progressively more serious in implication). ~ / prəsəŋǝ̆ nibhavl@ (VI) the situation was saved. ~ / prəsəŋǝ̆̆̆ nibhaval (VT)/ nibhavun neə to cope with a difficult situation. ~ / prəsəŋgǝ̆ marə/ marun neə to manage to make the best of a difficult occasion. ~ / prəsəŋgǝ̆ / 0prəsəŋgǝ̆/ 0vəkhət/kal0 / 0ka pahun/ okhun having assessed the situation, circumspectly. Avər [kəhi/ bak@ ] prəsəŋgǝ̆/ ~ betl@ ohəvl@ gudərl @ a found himself in a difficult situation, A was having a tough time. ~ / 0 vəkhət saŋhun yet nahi you never know what might happen / turn up. ~ ahe, prəsŋgǝ̆/ vəkhət ahe; zəvə akhi pəyse əsu dya you never know what might happen / turn up; take a few pounds/etc. extra wit you. Avər payat bunyač@ ~ / prəsəŋgǝ̆/ pai al@ A [was] once nearly drowned. Avər Xč @ / Vayč @ ~ prəsəŋgǝ̆ / paḷil@ . (X, V: usu. unpleasant) a did happen to V/ have occasion to V/etc. (neutral); it fell to A to kelə; tya 0i/ prəsŋgi.. we staged a play/ got married; on that occasion... ge;ya/ maglya/ magčca 0i/ prəsəŋgi khepela he last time on the previous occasion. puhlya 0i/ etc. the next time.


2b opp. ve < point or span of time regarded as opportune. convenient, appropriate, etc. - as specif. in the context> time. gai 0evər ali the train/ bus came on time (according to the schedule) / in time (for some purpose). mulinči ləhnə 0[ča] 0evər zhali pahiet girls should be married at the proper time> Anə 0ela mədət keli A helped when help was needed. Anə 0vər punctually, regularly. 0 eča səmpl@ was over before the proper time.


2bl syn: 1 səndhi F < > opportunity, chance. ~ [nighun] geli the opportunity was lost. ~ sadhə to find the right time. ~ ghaləvə dəvəə (cf {2 ~1 }) to miss ONEs chance, to let the opportunity slip [through ] ONES fingers]].


2c < point or span of time regarded from the standpoint of astrology as auspicious, etc. esp. one of the cycle of 8 spans of 1 hours each into which a day night is divided> [ekeka] 0ca gu sto! every moment has its factorable or adverse effect. kamala ~ cagli/ vai lagli it turned out to be an auspicious/ inauspicious time for the undertaking. zati/yeti ~ time of loss/ gain. {ghat0}, { əmrɨt0}, etc. ({-vela}).


3 < the particular scaling of the time axis agrred on conventionally for timing clocks> time. sthanik/ prəmaə ~ local / standard ~. bharəti: yǝ̆ prəma0 Indian Standard Time (I. S. T., 5 hours ahead of G. M. T.). gri: ni prəma0 Greenwich Mean Time (G.M.T.).


4 ~ bhərli 9{2ghəi}) the time is up. ǁ 0ecə bhan {2ve 1}.ǁ ~ səmpli syn: ve sə mpla ({2ve 1b)}) the time is up. ǁ 0eča əbhavi syn: veača əbhavi ({2ve 1}) for want of time.


** 5 { ka ala hota pə~ali nəvhti prov.) ǁ mədeli ~ {~1} also < [ the time of ] the minor meal halfway between the two main meals around 3-5 p. m. > ǁ ek ~ P təri calel, p təri ek ~ calel (P: with V 1@ also with ekhadya 0ela /0es for ek ~ ) it would do if P; one may not mind so much if P (but.. )


2 ve M cf. 1 ve, ka səməy.


1 < time as measurable, acceptable, spend able, esp. in relatively short stretches measured by the clock rather than by the calendar, French temps (as opposed to fois)> time. Survatica ~ [ the time at] the beginning. Don gayanča mədhla kiti ~ illk ahe ? pu kə / thoa. how much time is left? a lot / a little.kiti ~ he calar ahe? pukə / thoa ~ calel. [for] how long will this go on ? it will go on [for] a long/ short time / while. (while rather lit.) zaya-yeya mədhe tyaca bərac/ phar/ pukə ~ [ phukə] moto/ zato he has to spend / waste a lot of [his] time going and coming. tyaca~ bəra/ məet zato he passes the time pleasantly. itka / bərac / thoa ~ to kahi bollac nahi he did not say anything for all this / a long/ short time/ while. mədhala ~ phukə gela the time. ~ kaə/ ghaləvə / dəvə to while away time. zəra 0anə after some time, after a while, a little later. Vayla/X sahi [Aca] ~ gheə to take up some [of As] time for X/to V. ~ khaə to aside spare time for A/X sahi ~ kahə to set aside spare time for A/X . 0at~ kahə to manage to spare some time. Al: ~ phavla obsolescent A got some spare time. gatanna ~ kuhe / kəsa [nighun] gela [te] amhala kəḷlə nahi we couldnt make out where the time had gone to while we were singing, we [completely] lost track of the time while we were singing. Al 0acə bhan ahe (syn : veecə bhan ) A keeps track of time. phursətica ~ leisure time / hours. rikama ~ free time. kamaca ~ ( cf. kamači { 1 ve 2} ) ( time available for working) working time. Ala Vayla ~ lagla A took a lot of / a little time to V. 0ača əbhavi ( syn: veḷeča əbhavi ) for want of time.


1a syn: pukə ~ < > a lot of time. Ala ~ lagla ~ lagla A took a lot of time.

1b syn: və dhi 2 < period of alloted time> ~ səmpla/ bhərla (syn: {1 ve 4} səmpli/ bhəli, {2 ghərli} bhərli ) the time is up.


2 syn. əvəka 2 < period of unoccupied time>

2a in loose use, syn: uir < > delay.

2b ~ phavla ~ , syn : əvəvka 2b < spare time >. phavya 0 at in spare time.

** 3 Ala ~ zhala 1 A was late. 2 A could spare some time.

ֲ əbdǝ̆ M


1                    lit., tech.; cf. viəy, avaz, dhvəni; məhabhut.


1a s/v: hoə nighə < sensum of hearing > sound. {ni 01} full of silence.


1b o/v: kərə < vocal sound by animate being >. pəki mənu ~ kərit hote birds were making sweet sounds / were chirping sweetly. tyača toun ~ phue na he couldnt utter a sound.


2a usu. in negating context < stretch of meaningful human speech, especially one as short as a word > kamabəggəl [ek] ~ / 0 danə bolla nahi didnt say a word / thing about the work. ~ kahu nəko! dont say a word maha toun ~ nighun gela the word escaped me/ my lips. { čəkar~}. {ni 0 2} silent. don~ bolə to say a few words to make a brief speech.


2b often in pl; cf. bol < act of linguistic communication, content of such an act as : promise, prediction, request, wish, censure, etc., usu. specif. by the context >. ragaca ~ word of anger. don~saŋgə to say a few words (of advice, information, etc. ). ~ (pl.) mage gheə to withdraw ONEs words, to take back what ONE said, to eat words ( under humiliating circumstances). Ala~ deә [ki P] to give ONES word to A [that P]. Aca ~ khoa pəla / hrәla As promise was not made good, As recommendation failed to carry weight. Anә apl@ ~ khər@ sg. o pl.) kel2 A made good his words, A was as good as his word. Aca ~ khər @ kho @ zhal @ (sg. or pl.) As prediction came true/ false. {bol} /~ lavə etc. əkherca ~ last word. Aca ~ khali p ə la nahi As word did not go unheeded / unchallenged. Aca ~ zhelə to accede to As wishes. Azəvə [Bsaəhi] ~ akә to put in / to have a word with A [for B]. Aca ~ manә to show regard for As word. 0 danә ~ vahto a word in anger leads to another. {0da0di}.

2c < piece of communication carrying [divine] authority> authority; the Word [of god]. 0{[prәmaǝ}. 0{brǝmmhǝ̆.}


3 often in pl., cf. әrthǝ̆ < linguistic communication in its outward, formal, stylistic aspect, as opposed to meaning, content, experience, knowledge, action- usu. specif. i by the context>. kay valǝ te mǝla 0da [m] mǝdhe saƞgta yet nahi I cant say in words what I felt. 0dalǝƞkar ({ǝlǝƞkar}). thoya/ mozkya/ go/ etc. 0dat sangitlǝ said in a few / in a few measured / in nice/ etc. words. 0bdanči / {abdik} kǝsrǝk verbal acrobatics. {ahyala 0daca mar prov }~ nǝkot, kriti pahie! not words but deeds acta non verba (Latin_). ga yace ~ ai cal the words / lyrics and the tune / melody/ music of a song.


4 cf . pǝd, vakkyǝ̆


4a < word-token, spoken or written, as a division of a sentence > word, pǝhilya 9 ) danna75 pǝyse 75 paisas for the first 9 words~ khaṇǝ gaṇǝ to omit a word by mistake (not: to eat ONES word). 0dacǝ {vyakǝrǝƞ} saƞgṇǝ to parse a word.


4b word-type, spoke nor written, as a dictionary entry; inflectional set organized around the basic member, esp nominal set> word . nǝdi ~ calǝvṇǝ to decline the word nadi. {0sǝgrǝgǝ̆} vocabulary. {0ko}. {0bdarthǝ̆} gloss for a word.


Abstract: After preliminary remarks relating dictionary-making to linguistic theory, Encyclopedias, and Word finders ( 1,2), the paper proposes an ideal format for the entry of an unabridged dictionary a 2-part entry- heading, a 5-part body of the entry, and supplementary information ( 3). Some Comments on typological format (4) follow, as also observations on the raison d tre of the selection of entries, the constituents of an entry, and the arrangement of the entries and their internal constituents (5).

As a concrete illustration of a wide variety of problems before a practicing lexicographer, a selection of entries for a possible Marathi-English dictionary is then presented (7), Prefaced by an explanation of topographical and other conventions followed in these (6).


A grain is enough to tell us whether the rice is well-cooked.

-         A Marathi proverb.




The first half of the paper ( 1 to 4) and some fragmentary entries were presented at the Conference on Dictionary Making in Indian Languages held under the auspices of the Central Institute of Indian Languages Mysore at the All India Writers Home, Mysore from 25to 28 March 1970. The paper as a whole was published in Indian linguistics Volumes 26, 1968, 27, 1969 (published in 1970, 1973, section 3- has been inserted later.


The sample dictionary entries are chips from an abandoned workshop- in which I had the pleasure of collaborating with Dr. Franklin C. SOUTHWORTH, Dr. I.M.P. RAESIDE and Dr. Naresh B. KAVADI. With one exception they represent my contribution-which which has benefited from the others suggestions. The entries on nāra en and 2 nāraen were first drafted by Dr. RAESIDE and then extensively revised by me. For the present form of the entries, of course. I am alone responsible. Dr. M.A. MEHENDALE saw an earlier version of this paper and made many useful suggestions.


It is my privilege to dedicate it to Dr.. S. M. KATRE who has done so much for Indian lexicography.