At a time when the modern structuralist-functionalist approach or, rather, approaches (for there are a group of closely related and sometimes closely competing approaches) are transforming almost every aspect and branch of linguistic studies, lexicography has remained largely untouched by them. This is so partly because lexicography has been looked upon as a rather unexciting practical-minded pursuit in which it is enough to be neat and tidy and to be guided by common sense and in which one has little use for the fancy constructs of theorizing. But there is also a more genuine reason – namely, the sufficient development of semantics within the frame-work of descriptive linguistics.


            The aim of the present study is quite modest – namely, to go over a limited area of the Marathi lexicon with habits brought over from descriptive linguistics. On the one hand, it is hoped, it will serve to warn linguists of the formidable complexity and richness of the data awaiting them even when it is already “processed” to some extent (as it is here). At the same time, it seeks to re-assure lexicographers that a linguist can help them to make things even more tidy and to fashion the dictionary into an even more effective practical tool. It will be seen that although this study was inspired by two previous linguistic studies of kinship terms – Lounsbury’s for the Amerindian language Pawnee and Goodenough’s for the Pacific island languages Trukese1—its scope is somewhat different from theirs: it is lexicographical rather than semantic.


            The data is taken from the speech of educated speakers of Marathi in Poona of whom the present author is one. Everyday colloquial speech has been kept in view, although forms in the literary and other styles have often brought in for comparison. Forms are recorded in a modified phonemic transcription, using the following symbols:


            Constants: p t k, b d g, c č , j ǰ , f s š , m n , l ! r, (     ½  are retroflex, c j and č  ǰ  are affricates respectively homorganic with s and ś ;   is the velar nasal)


            Semivowels: h, y v (phonetically h constitutes the aspiration if preceded by a consonant or v; and y v the diphthongal glide if preceded by a vowel without being followed by a vowel)

            Vowels: i ī i u ū , e a ə̄ o, æ Ɔ, ā ( î a ā are respectively high, mid, low central unrounded; ī ū â are the long counterparts of i u a respectively; æ Ɔ are the lowmid counter-parts of e o)


            Other vowels:m (nasalization of the preceding vowel and the following semivowel), + (word juncture), - (morph boundary when it does not coincide with word juncture; it has no phonemic value), (word accent on the following syllable shown only when divisions marked by + are present).


            This transcription is essentially based on the analysis presented in the author’s Ph. D. thesis, The Phonology and morphology of Marathi (Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., 1958), though it has been modified and simplified for practical reasons.


            The next section presents the basic corpus of forms with a minimum of generalizing comment. It is divided into four lists.


            (a)        The elementary terms (1—47).

            (b)        The operators which accompany other terms (I-XXI).

            (c)        Additional terms that are elementary in form but composite-like in                                 meaning (A-R .

            (d)        Patterns for composite terms (i-iii).


            The third and concluding section limits itself to a few general observations.

            Cross-references by numbers and letters are to the lists. Glosses, where necessary, have been set off by = and ‘  ’ The following abbreviations have been used:



            P          parent                                                   SB       sibling

            F          father                                                    B          brother

            M         mother                                                  Sr         sister

            O         offspring                                               Sp        spouse

            SN       son                                                       H         husband

            D         daughter                                               W        wife


            adj       adjective                                               lit          literary

            apl        appellative                                            m         masculine

            cmb      combinable                                           n          neuter

            corr      correlative                                            nfg        new-fangled

            elg        elegant                                                  npu       not in polite usage

            esp       especially                                              ofd       old-fashioned

            f           feminine                                                pl         plural

            fig         figurative                                               resp      respectively

            fuc        feudal upper-class                                 sb         substantive

            hpl        honorific plural                          sg         singular


            Substantives are cited in the nominative singular with an indication of gender. Variable adjectives are cited in the nominative singular of m, f, and n.


            Some of the technical terms used in this study perhaps call for some explanation: ‘Ego’: not the person using in this kin term but the person to whom it relates its referent, ‘the propositus’ of legal parlance (thus we should replace the familiar but often misleading rubrics ‘man speaking’ and ‘woman speaking’ by ‘male ego’s’ and female ego’s’). ‘Sibling’: the person having the same parents as ego, brother or sister. ‘Appellative’: a term used for designating a particular kinsman; it may be for mention or for address or for both. (When there is no indication, both are to be understood.) Thus, if one is talking about a father’s love in general, one would use bāp; if one is mentioning specifically one’s own or someone else’s father, one might use vail ; but not normally the other way round. ‘Correlative’: the corr of F is O, Sn, or D, the corr of Sn is P, F, or M, and so on. ‘Elegant’: formal style of speech ((pra-vh, bhārdasta) used when the speaker is a little conscious of his or of his addressee’s status or of the importance of the subject-matter. ‘New-fangled’: style representing Western cultural influence (sāheb-i), often opposed to the more conservative ‘elegant’ style2 ‘Feudal upper-class’: even more removed from informal ease than the elegant (samv-sthā-n-i, from its association with the princely states of the British regime). ‘Honorific plural’: as in most other modern Indian languages, used in mention (3rd person) as well as address (2nd person).


            The symbol ~ reads as ‘freely varying with’. The arrow à reads as ‘is replaced by’.




            We may now proceed to the presenting and describing of the terms. First, the list of the elementary terms – each can stand by itself as a sb referring to the person standing in that relationship to ego, who may remain unspecified, or explicitly specified, or specified by the situational context. The last is particularly the case when ego is the speaker himself. Note moreover that, in Marathi, one hardly ever addresses anybody as ‘my so-and-so’.


1.  F m3 bāp general term, but npu as apl, never hpl, as apl of mention only for the purpose of insulting the ego or in conscious imitation of sub-standard usage/a pit-ā lit, fig/b jan-ak lit, usually fig/c tīrtha-rup always hpl, now ofd, elg apl of mention/d vail always hpl, apl of mention (also: adj =’elder’, esp as Xib)/e bāb-ā, aṇṇ-ā, dād-ā, tāt-yā, app-ā, nān-ā, bhāu usually hpl, aspll, esp by ego (also: as m nicknames and respectful suffixcs to m given names; cf. 7, 7d) /f papā, dæi usually hpl, nfg apll, esp by ego// corr: 3, 4, 5; cmb: I, Ia, Id with XIII, XVXVIII a, XIX; usually hpl to ego, sg not unknown in nfg style; given name never as apl by ego. Cf: mhātār-ā (sb and adj m = ‘old man’) as substandard apl for F.


2.  M f ā-i general term, also fig, apl, as apl often hpl esp by persons other than ego, such as ego’s Sp (also: apl, never hpl, for the Hindu Mother Goddess, the consort of Siva and, by by humorous extension, in the expression mā-jh-e +ā-ī = ‘apl of address to a woman with whom the speaker is exasperated’)/ a māt-ā (to match Ia)/ b jan-an-i (to match Ib)/ c māto-śr-i-i~matu-śr-i, (to match Ic)/d māy, māu-l-i lit with poetic overtone, in set expressions, and fig (esp māu-l-i = ‘kind-hearted woman’), otherwise npu/e jij-i, mā-i, often hpl, apll, esp by ego (cf. 8b)/f mam-i nfg apl, esp by ego//corr : as for I; cmb: 2, 2a as for I; normally, never as apl by ego. Cf. mhātār-i (sb and adj f =’old woman’) as substandard apl for M.


3.  O n mul never hpl, general term, apl of mention only when a mixed group is being referred to, never apl of address (also: = ‘young human being’)/a apattya lit, fig, learned and technical in overtone/b lek-r-um  lit with poetic overtone (to match 2nd) (also, in endearment, = ‘child, looked upon as guileless, helpless, ignorant’) ; otherwise npu)/c  per as general term or apl of mention ofd, otherwise npu (also=’young one of an animal, esp. a monkey’, ‘child looked upon with annoyance or pity or condescension’, cf. 4e, 5d)/d por- -ə̅m, kār-¶-ə̅ m apll of insult or extreme annoyance (also = ‘child looked upon with anger or extreme annoyance’, cf. I)/e ½ O when infant, esp in nursery usage, apl of address esp by ego in coaxing or gentle teaching- (also : =’infant, in nursery usage’ and endearing suffix to m and f given names, esp of the speaker’s own Oo)/f beb-i f, not n, O when infant, nfg style, as in a modern maternity hospital (also = ‘infant, in nfg atyle, and as 5f) // corr: I, 2; cmb: 3, 3a, 3c with XI-XXI (except XII c, XII d, XVI a, XVI b, XVII a, XVII a, XVII b, XX a. Cf: mul-g-ə̄m n substandard.


4.  Sn m mul-g-ā never hpl, rarely apl of mention (also =’boy’)/a putra lit, fig (to match Ia, rarely apl of mention and then usually hpl)/b stud very lit (to match Ib)/c ciran-jiv (to match Ic), also used with an overtone of banter or gentle chiding/d lek never hpl, ofd general term, as apl of mention with overtone of banter or gentle chiding (also = ‘apl of address in banter or playful chiding between intimate male friends, short for hv-ā + c-ā+ ‘lek =’son of an ass’, otherwise npu, cf. also 5c)/e por, por-g-ā never hpl, general terms and apll of mention (por also apl of address) used with an overtone of solicitude, condescending approval or disapproval, or in conscious imitation of substandard usage (also = ‘boy (with similar restrictions)’; Cf. 3c, 5d)/f por-g-ə̅ m n, not m, otherwise as for 4e /g por- (to match 3d) /h put in some set expressions (to match 2nd), otherwise npu/i chokr-ā never hpl, apl of mention for Sn young in age in casual informal style (also = ‘attractive-looking boy)’// corr: as for 3; cmb: 4, 4a, 4d as for 3; 4a with XVII a, XVII b. XX a; 4c with XII b; hpl to ego in fuc style, otherwise never hpl to female ego and, normally not male ego either hpl to male ego to signify ego’s displeasure and, in some ofd families, ego’s recognition of equal status when Sn attains majority.


5.  D f mul-g-I (to match 4) (also = ‘girl, little girl’; cf. also under 34)/a kanny-ā lit, fig, elg apl of mention and then occasionally hpl (to match 4a, 4c)/b sut-ā, duhit-ā (to match 4b)/c lek never hpl, ofd general term, as apl of mention, often with an overtone of playful chiding, otherwise npu (cf. 4d)/d por, por-g-i (to match 4e, also: as for 4e, cf. 4e)/e por--i , kār--i (to match 3d, also: as for 3d)/f beb-i pet-apl, formerly nfg (also f nickname, 3 f)/g chokr-i (to match 4i) (also = ‘attractive-looking girl, gal’) // corr: as for 3; cmb: 5, 5a, 5c as for 3 (except with XIV); 5a with XXa; hpl to ego in fuc style, otherwise never hpl to ego.   


6.  Sb n bhāv-aņa (to match 3)/ a sah-odar adj invariable and sb m, lit and fig, = ‘born of the same female’ // corr: 6, 7, 8; cmb; 6 with I-IV, XI-XX (except XII d), XIX, XXb, XXI; note that 6; 7, 7b; 8, 8a, often generalized = ‘ego’s consanguineal of ego’s generation (resp of either sex, male, female)’


7.  B m bhāu general term, apl of mention (cf: also Ie, 7d) / a bhrāt-ā (to match Ia)/ b bandhu lit, fig (to match Ia), always hpl as elg apl of mention (to match Ic) /c bandhu-rāj always hpl, mock-respectful apl with overtone of banter and gentle chiding (cf 4c, 7b)/ d dād-ā, aṇṇ, bhāu, app-ā, bāp-u, bhayy-ā, less commonly bhāi, tāt-yā, bāb-ā, often hpl, apll esp by younger ego (also: as m nicknames and respectful suffixes to m given names, esp of speaker’s own B) (cf. Ie, 7) // corr: as for 6; cmb 7, 7b as for 6 (but 7b never with XII c); 7 with XVI a; 7b with XVI b; hpl in fuc style and to younger male ego in ofd usage, otherwise normally sg to ego; 7, 7b generalized (see under 6).


8.  Sr f bah-iņ (to match 4)/ a bhag-in-i (to match 5a)/ b tā-i, akk-ā, mā-i, and, in ofd usage, ǰiǰ –i apll esp by younger ego (also as f nicknames and respectful sufflxes to f given name, esp of speaker’s own Sr) (cf. 2e)// corr. As for6; cmb: 8, 8a as for 6 (but 8a never with XII c); hpl in fuc style to ego, otherwise sg to ego; 8, 8a generalized (see under 6). Cf.: Skt. svas-ā, never used.


9.  female ego’s H m navr-ā never hpl, general term and apl of mention by persons other than ego (the use as apl mention by ego is either sub-standard or a cute self-conscious imitation of it; also = ‘bridegroom’)/ a pati lit, fig (to match Ia), less commonly used as apl of mention and then often hpl (rarely by ego and then hpl)/ b bhar-t-ā very lit (to match / c bhartār ~ bhartār apl of mention, often hpl (always by ego), now ofd and in law court jargon/ d yaj-mān always hpl, apl by mention (including by ego) to match, Id; also = ‘host; head of the family, esp in the role of the host’) /e misar nfg counterpart of 9d (also = ‘sir, mister, with overtone of banter, gentle chiding, or rudeness’)/ f sāheb apl of mention by ego, esp in addressing servants (also =master ; boss, chief; white man’)// corr: I0; cmb: 9, 9a with XX; 9a, with XX a; sg to ego either in nfg style or in substandard usage or a cute self-conscious imitation of it; given name normally not used as apl by ego.4 Cf. navr-ā, navar-dev, var all = ‘bridegroom’ (the last in lit and elg style); vidhur = ‘widower (no reference to any ego)’); kārbhār-i (= ‘manager of fuc household’), mālak ( = ‘owner; master’) both apll for H in substandard usage.


10.  male ego’s W f bāy-ko never hpl general term and apl of mention by ego and others (also=’woman’ in certain contexts) /a patn-i lit, fig (to match 9a) apl of mention in elg usage  (sometimes hpl)/b bhāryy-ā (to match 9b), as apl of address by ego lit, as apl of mention (especially by persons other than ego, never hpl) obsolete (like stri otherwise=woman, lit’) (cf. 9c)/c maa-i commonly n hpl (in ofd usage f sg), apl of mention (to match, 9d), now rather ofd (also = ‘association; (in n pl or, in ofd usage, F SG) Folks, gathering, people, members of one’s family’)/d kuumb n not f, never hpl, ofd apl of mention (cf. also C and G2)/e us n not f, ofd apl of mention (always hpl when used by ego) (also=’human being (n); male person (m)’/f bā-i, ‘bā-I+sāheb always hpl, as apl of address by ego, nearly  obsolete except in fuc usage.  (also=’hpl, apl of respect to a woman, the lady, madam, ma’am (with or without sāheb), apl of mock-respect, in banter or playful chiding (always with sāheb), ma’am’: ego may use this of W-respectfully, to match 9 f or mock–respectfully; in the latter use as well as to express affection, ‘rā-i+saheb is also common (=’her/your majesty’) also: cf. 44a)/g mises ngf apl of mention, usually hpl (to match ge, but more common in use;  also: ngf prefixed title for married woman or widow=’Mrs.’)/savbhāgg-ya-vat-i, shortened to sau colloquially, apl of mention, esp by ego (also+’married woman whose H is alive, prefixed title for her’)// corr: 9; cmb: 10, 10a, 19d with XI-XIIb, XX, XXb; 10a with XXa, hpl to ego in fuc style, in some ofd families, and jocularly, otherwise sg to ego as a rule; given name commonly used as apl by ego.5 CF.: navr-i, vadhu both =’bride’ (the latter lit and elg); sav-bhāgg-ya-vat-i, su-vās-in-i, savāś-i savāna all-‘married woman whose H is alive’ (the first rather lit, the last esp in female use): vidhu-ā, ga-t+bhatrî-k-ā, vio, rāṇḍ, ra-ki all+ ‘window (reference to any ego rare)’ (resp ordinary term: lit or with technical overtone; nfg euphemism : npu since also used+’ mistress, prostitute’; npu with pitying or depreciatory overtone); kārbhār-i, astur-i booth apll for W in substandard usage.


11.  P’sF m āz-ā never hpl, general term, apl of mention where hpl is not called for/ a  āz-o-b-ā always hpl, apl (also of address to an old man in hpl) /b pit-ā-maha F’s F, not P’s F, sometimes hpl, lit, (fig= ‘grand old man’)/c māt-ā-maha M’sF, not P’s F, sometime hpl, lit /corr : 15, 17, 18; but 17a only to 11, 11b; cmb: 11, 11a with I, II, XIII, XIIIa, XIX; normally hpl to ego, though sg is possible if ego was born after his death and consequently P’s F is more of a historical personage to him; given  name never used as apl by ego ; II IIa; 13 often generalized+’ ego’s consanguineal of the second ascending generation (resp male, female) or ego’s P’s P’s B’s W’.


12.  P’sP’s Fm pa-z-ā (to match II) / a pa-z-o-b-ā (to matched) /b pra-pit-ā-maha F’sF’s F not P’s P’s F, lit, fig/c ni-pa-z-ā ‘khāpar+pa-z-ā ‘hopar+pa-z-ā resp P’s P’s P’s F, P’s P’s P’s P’s F, P’s P’s P’s P’s F (similar formations with 12a)/// corr: 16, 19, 19a, 20 to 12, 12a, 12b; 16a, 19b, 20a to 12c; cmb: 12, 12a as for II; normally hpl to ego (though the qualifications stated for II apply here also with even greater force); given name never used as apl by ego.


13.  P’s M f āj-i general term, apl (sometimes hpl to persons other than ego) (also: respectful suffix to an also woman, or to any female without b-I-suffixed, apl of address to an old woman, or to any female affecting ways of her seniors, usually hpl) /a pit-ā-mah-i F’s M, not P’s M, some-times hpl. Lit (to match Iic)// corr: as for II; cmb 13 as for 11 and 13 with 3rd, IV; normally never hpl to ego; given name never used as apl by ego; 13 generalized (see under II)


14.  P’s P’s M f pa-j-i sometimes hpl, general term and apl of mention; ani-pa-j-i,  khāpar+pa-j-i hopar+pa-j-i resp P’s P’s P’s M, P’s P’s P’s M, P’s  P’s  P’s  P’s P’sP’s M // corr: as for 12; cmb : 14 as for 13; normallynever hpl to ego; given name never used as apl.


15.  O’s O n nāt-v-aṇḍa (to match 6) // corr: II, I3, cmb: I5 with XI-XIIb, XIII, XIIIa, XIX, XXb.


16.  O’s O’s O n pa-t-v-aṇḍa(to match I5)//a ni-pa-t-v-aṇḍa khāpar+pa-t-v-aṇḍa,       ḍḥopar+pa-t-v-aṇḍa resp O’s O’s O’s O O’s O’s O’s O’s O’s O’s O’s O, O’s O’s O’s O’s O’s O // corr: 12, 12a, 12b,14a to I6; I2c, 14a to 16 cmb: I6 as for I5.


17.  O’s Sn m nāt-u general term and apl of mention (sometimes hpl tp person other than ego) a pavtra Sn’s Sn, not O’s Sn, lit, fig (to match IIb) rarely apl of mention (hpl in elg usage)// corr; as I5 (but 17a not to IIc); cmb: 17 as for 15; never hpl to ego.  Cf. Skt.  davhitra D’s Sn, not used.


18.  O’s D f nāt never hpl, general term and apl of mention/a pavtr-i S’n’s D, not O’s D (to match I7a)// corr: as for I5: cmb: I8 as for I5; never hpl to ego.


19.  O’s O’s Sn m pa-i-u (to match 17) a pra-pavtra Sn’s Sn’s Sn, not O’s O’s Sn, lit, fig (to match I2b) /b ni-pa-t-u, ‘khāpar+ pa-t-u, ‘hopar+ pa-t-u as for 16a (mutatis mutandis)//corr : as for 16, 16a resp ; cmb : 19 as for 15; never hpl to ego.


20.  O’s O’s D f pa-t-i (to match18)/a pra-pavtr-I Sn’s Sn’s D, not O’s O’s D (to match I9a) .b ni-pa-t-i, ‘khpar+pa-t-i,hopar+pa-t-i as for I6a (mutates mutandis)// corr: as for I6 I6a resp; cmb : 20 asfor I5; never hpl to ego.


21.  F’s B m cult-ā general term and apl of mention, often hpl rather elg as compared to 21a/a kāk-ā occasionally a general term, usually apl (often hpl) (als: m nickname and respectful suffix to m given names, esp of speaker’s own F’s B, or F’s male friend, or cult-ā in extended sense or (always in hpl) Sp’s F’s B)// corr: 28, 29; cmb 21, 21 a with I-IV, XI—XIIb, XIII, XIIIa XV, XIX, XXB; F’s elder B is hpl to ego, F’s younger B often not hpl to ego esp if not very much older than ego: note that 21, 21a, 22-30 30a 3I 32b 38-42, 42a 43b, 44, 44a, 45, 45a are all often generalized replacing B, Srmin the definition by male, female consanguineal of the same generation.


22.  F’s Sr f ātty-ā~āty~ā~āte~āt general term, apl (often hpl) (also: f nickname, respectful suffix to f given names, esp of speaker’s own F’s Sr. etc, as for 21aq; in either case -bā-i may be suffixed and hpl esp to persons other than ego)// corr: 25, 26, 27, cmb: 22 as for 21; usually sg to ego; 22 generalized (see under 21) . Cf.: māv-a in substandard speech (cf. māvunder 23).


23.  M’sB m mām-ā (to match 21a) 9also: as for 21a; and +’ man who is laughably unwise in the ways of the world’) / a mātul always hpl apl of mention in rather ofd and  elg usage // corr; as for 22; cmb: 23 sfor 21; usually  sg to egs, esp M’s younger B; 23 generalized (see under 21).  Cf. māv in substandard speech (cf. māv-a under 22).


24.  M’s Sr māvś-i (ta match 22) also: as for 22 except that the use of the suffix bā-i is much less common)// corr: as for 22; cmb 24 as for 21, usually sg to ego; 24 gene3ralized (see under 21)


25.  ego’s Sr’s O or female ego’s B’s O or female ego’sH’s Sr’s O n bhāç~er~bhāç-r-um (to match 3 usually with an overtone of endearment cf 3b)// corr:22, 23, 24, 31 ; cmb.25 with XI-XIIb. XIII, XIIIa, XV, XIX, XXb (cf. 21); 25 generalized (see under 21).


26.  ego’s Sr’s Sn or female ego’s B’s Sn or female ego’s H’s Sr’s Sn m bhāç general term, apl of mention (sometimes hpl)// corr: as for 25; cmb:26 as for 25; occasionally hpl to male ego in elg usage in apl of mention, otherwise never hpl to ego; 26 generalized (see under 21).


27.  ego’s Sr’s D or female ego’s B’s D or female ego’s H’s Sr’s D f bhāc-i as for 18//corr: as for 25; cmb:27 as for 25; never hpl to ego; 27 generalized (see under 21)


28.  male ego’s B’s Sn or female ego’ H’s B’s Sn m puta-yā as for 26//corr: 21,30; cmb: 28 as for 25; usually sg to ego (as under 26); 28 generalized (see under 21).


29.  male ego’s B’s D or female ego’s H’s B’s D f pura-i as for 18//corr: as for 28; cmb: 29 as for 25; never hpl to ego. Cf. dhā-i in substandard speech.


30.  F’s B’s W f cult-i as for 18 (rather elg as compared to 30a)/a kāk-u~kāk-i as for 21a, (which it matches mutatis mutandis), -bā-i may be tagged on to it, when used as a nickname; a common apl (with or without -bā-i, hpl) for a hired female domestic cook; in slang, it may further mean ‘girl making herself ridiculous by acting in ofd or staid ways’)// corr: as for 21; cmb: 30, 30a as for 21; 30a with XIId; sometimes hpl to ego; never so if her H is not hpl to ego; 30, 30a generalized (see under 21).


31.  M’s B’s W f mām-i general term, apl of mention and address (often hpl)//corr: as for 23; cmb: 31 as for 21; sometime hpl to ego, never so if her H is not hpl to ego; 31 generalized (see under 21).


32a.  F’s Sr’s H m āt-o-b-ā, this is nothing more than a facetious nonce-word coined from the stem of 22; never apl of address/ b M’s Sr’s H m māvs-ā general term, apl of mention (often hpl)//corr: the very marginal status of both is shown by the fact that there is no correlative term for either; often hpl to ego; cmb: 32b as for 21.


33.  female ego’s H’s W other than ego (‘co-wife’) for savat general term, fig, and apl of mention (never hpl)/a sa-patn-i very lit//corr:33;cmb:33 with XI-XIIb; hpl to ego if married to ego’s H prior to ego; otherwise sg.


34.  Sn’s W f sun as for 18/a snulit, elg apl of mention (often hpl by persons other than ego)/bsun+bā-I~sun-bā-i apl of mention and, esp by ego, of address (often hpl; never hpl in address by ego)//corr:36, 37; cmb:34, 34a, 34b with XIII, XIIIa, XIV, XIX, XX, XXb; 34, 34b with VII-X, XIId; 34a with XXa; sometime hpl to ego in mention, never so in address;6  5 is also used as apl of address; 34, 35 often generalized = ‘W, H of ego’s or female ego’s Sp’s male, female consanguineal of the first descending generation’.


35.  D’s H m zāvai general term, fig ( =‘person with a claim for excessive attention’), apl of mention (often hpl)/a jāmāt lit, apl of mention (often hpl) in elg usage/bzāvai+bu-ā always hpl, elg apl of mention and jocular apl of address// corr:as for 34; cmb:35, 35b as for 34; 35a as for 34a (but 35, 35a, 35b never with XIV), always hpl to ego in ofd usage, esp in address; 35 generalized (see under 34); in informal use 35, 35b extended even further, so that a person is zāvai to all his W’s māher (E), esp to his W’s elder B (cf.40).  Cf.’ghar+zāvai~ghar-zāvai=’D’s H residing at ego’s home and inheriting his property (an arrangement favoured among Hindus when ego is without a Sn)’.


36.  Sp’s F m sās-r-ā general term, fig ( =‘person who claims unwelcome authority over others, one given to bossing’), apl of mention (often hpl, always so for female ego)/a śvaśur always hpl, apl of mention in elg usage/b māman-ji female ego’s H’s F, not Sp’s F, always hpl, apl of mention (to match 34b)//corr; 34,35; cmb:36, 36a with I, II, V, VI, XIII, XIIIa, XIX; always hpl in address to male ego and in address and mention to female ego, usually hpl to male ego in mention also; given name never used as apl by ego; 36, 37 often generalized to= ‘Sp’s consanguineal of an ascending generation, male and female resp, or Sp’s P’s B’s W’ (cf. under 46).


37.  Sp’s M f  sāsu general term, fig (to match 36)7, apl of mention by persons other than female ego (never hpl)/a sāsu-bā-i always hpl, apl of mention in elg usage by persons other than female ego, apl of mention and address by female ego (to match 36b)  (cf. also 2)//corr: as for 36; cmb: 37, 37a as for 36 and also with III, IV; always hpl in address to male ego and in address and mention to female egs, usually hpl to male ego in mention also; given name never used as apl by ego; 37 generalized (see under 36). Cf.Skt. śvaśru never used.


38.  male ego’s W’s B m mehu-a as for 26 (also as 40)/a śālak very lit//corr; 43; cmb:38 with I-IV, XI-XIIb, XIII, XIIIa, XIX, XXb ; always hpl, if very much older than ego; otherwise sg is possible; 38 generalized (see under 21). Cf.: substandard; sāl-ā m apl of abuse, npu; sā-k-ā-i sb f, male ego’s W’s B’s W, substandard.


39.  male ego’a W’s Sr f. mehu-i as for 18 (in now obsolete usage, this term = ‘male ego’s W’s younger Sr’) //corr:40; cmb:39 as for 38; male ego’s W’s younger Sr never hpl to ego, otherwise sometime hpl; 39 generalized (see under 21). Cf. -i substandard; sāl-i f apl of abuse, npu; ‘akka + sāsu = ‘male ego’s W’s elder Sr’, substandard.


40.  Sr’s H m mehu as for 26 (also as 38)//corr:38;39, cmb:40 as for 38; usually hpl to ego if older than ego, otherwise sg is possible, in old usage a’ways hpl to ego, esp in address (cf. under 35); 40 generalized (see under 21).  Cf.:bah-i-oi, substandard.


41.  male ego’s W’s Sr’s H m  u as for 26//corr: 41; cmb:41 as for 38; often often hpl to ego; 41 generalized (see under 21).  Cf. -bhāu; now obsolete.


42.  B’s W f  bhāv-zay as for 18 (rather elg as compared to 42a)/ a vahini~vayn-i as for 21a, mutatis mutandis (in ofd usage, 42a alone, without the given name, is the proper apl of address by ego for elder B’s W)// corr: 43, 45; cmb: 42, 42a as for 38 and also with XIId, XV; younger B’s W not usually hpl, otherwise sometimes hpl; 42, 42a generalized (see under 21).


43.  female ego’s H’s B m dir general terms, apl of mention (often hpl to persons other than ego; to ego, see below) / a devar female ego’s H’s younger B, very lit/b bhāu-ji occasionally as general term, apl of mention and address to ego, always hpl (also suffixed to the given name by ego; in ofd usage, 43b alone, without the given name, is the proper apl of address by ego for H’s elder B)//corr: 42; cmb:43, 43b as for 42; H’s elder B always hpl to ego, H’s younger brother may be sg in mention by ego; 43, 43b generalized (see under 21).


44.  female ego’s H’s B’s W f zau as for 11/a ‘zāu+ bā-i, bā-i always hpl, apl of address and mention by ego for H’s elder B’s W (the only proper way in ofd usage) and apl of mention by persons other than ego (also: cf. 10f) // corr: 44; cmb: 44, 44a, as for 38; also with XIId; H’s younger B’s W never hpl to ego, H’s elder B’s W always hpl in ofd usage; 44, 44a generalized (see under 21).


45.  female ego’s H’s Sr f naanda as for 11/a vansâm always hpl, apl of mention and, by ego, of address (also as respectful suffix to the given name of female ego’s H’s Sr) // corr: 42; cmb: 45, 45a as for 38; usually hpl to ego in ofd usage, esp H’s elder Sr; 45, 45a generalized, (see under 21); cf. naand-ā~nad-oi sb m, female ego’s H’s Sr’s H, obsolete.


46.  O’s Sp’s F m vyāhi as for 26/a vyāhi + bu-ā always hpl apl of mention // corr; 46, 47; cmb: 46, 46a as for 11; hpl in address to ego; note that 46 and 47 often generalized by making either or both of the following replacements: O→consanguineal of descending generation or H’s Sb’s O or younger sibling to whom ego is in loco parentis; F or M → consanguineal of ascending generation of P’s B’s W or older sibling who is in loco parentis to the Sp, male or female resp (cf. under 36). Cf.: samdhi substandard; ‘vara + pit-ā~pit-ā = ‘bridegroom’s F’.


47.  O’s Sp’s M f vih-i never hpl, general term, apl of mention/a ‘vih-i+bā-i~vih-iṇ-bā-i always hpl, apl of mention (both 47, 47a, also fig= ‘woman hard to please like the bridegroom’s M’, cf. footnote 7) // corr: 46, 47; cmb : 47, 47a as for 13; hpl in address by ego; 47 generalized (see under 46).  Cf. samdh-i substandard; ‘vara+māy~var-māy= ‘bridegroom’s M; fig (as for 47a)’.


Secondly, we may present a list of operators, which are either prefixed as the first element of a compound (I-X, XVIa, XVIb, XVIIa, XVIIb) or combined as an adj (XI--XXI, except XVIa, XVIb, XVIIa, XVIIb) so as to form composite kin terms with the elementary terms (1-47) listed so far.  Greek letters have been used to mark off the ranges of applications for the operators.


I. F→F’s B cu’lat + prefixed to several kin terms effecting a change in their definition by substituting a new term for one of the constituents of the definition: α F→F’s B in 11, 11a, 12, 12a, 36, 36a, 36b, 46, 46a (thus 11 āz-ā is P’s F, but cu’lat + āz-ā is P’s F’s B) β M (= F’s W)→F’s B’s W in 13, 14, 37, 37a, 47, 47a / γ Sb(=F’s O)→F’s B’s O in 6 /  δ B (= F’s Sn) → F’s B’s Sn in 7, 7b, 21, 21a, 23, 30, 30a, 31, 38, 42, 42a, 43, 43b, 44, 44a / ε Sr (=F’s D) →F’s B’s D in 8, 8a, 22, 24, 32b, 39, 40, 41, 45, 45a // corr of the composite term is the corr of the elementary term combined with I (however, in the case of I + 36, 36a, 36b, 37, 37a, with X) if such a combination is possible.  Rules of hpl address as for the kinsman indicated by the elementary term.


II. F→M’s B ‘mām-e + prefixed as for I: α, β, γ, δ, ε as for I α, etc. mutatis mutandis // corr: IX (for II + 36, 36a, 36b, 37, 37a); otherwise III.  In either case followed by corr of elementary term.


III. M→Fs Sr ‘āt-e+prefixed as for I; β, γ, δ, ε as for I β, etc. mutatis mutandis (thus 6 bhāv-aṇḍa is Sb, but ‘āt-e + bhāv-aṇḍa is F’s Sr’s O)//corr: as for II, substituting II for III.


IV. M→M’s Sr ‘māvas+prefixed as for I:β, γ, δ, ε as for III β, etc. (which they match) mutatis mutandis. // (corr : as for II, substituting IV for III)


V. P →P’s P āz-e + prefixed as for I: α FP’s F in 36, 36a, 36b / β MP’s M in 37, 37a. // corr: VII plus the corr of the elementary term.


VI. P →P’s P’s P. ‘pa-z-e + prefixed as for I: α, β as for Vα, Vβ (which they match) mutatis mutandis //  corr : VIII.


VII. O →O’s O ‘n āt + ~ n āt prefixed as for I: αSnO’s Sn in 34, 34b/ β DO’s D in 35, 35b // corr:VI.


VIII. O →O’s O’s O. pa’-at+prefixed as for I: α , β as for VII α, VII β (which they match) mutatis mutandis // corr: VI


IX. O →25 ‘bhāçe + prefixed as for I: α , β as for VII α, VII β (which they match) mutatis mutandis // corr: II, III, IV.


X. O→28 OR 29 pu’ta + prefixed as for I: α, β as for VII α, VII β (which they match) mutatis mutandis // corr:I.


XI. senior thor-l-ā adj m (f-i, n -âm) used for narrowing the range of several kin terms: α one who came to have that relationship with ego earlier than others who have the same relationship with ego, with 3, 3a, 3c, 4, 4a, 4c, 4d, 5, 5a, 5c, 10, 10a, 10d, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 34, 34a, 34b, 35a, 35b (thus, 17  nāt-u is O’s Sn to ego; for 10, 10d, 34, 34b, 35, 35b the seniority is of marriage, not birth) / β one who is born (or married) earlier than ego, with 6, 7, 7b, 8, 8a, 33 / γ Sb, B, Sr resp senior Sb, B, Sr in 21, 21a, 22, 23, 24, 30, 30a, 31, 32b, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 42a, 43, 43b, 44, 44a, 45, 45a (thus 42 bhāv-zay is B’s W, but ‘thor-l-i + bhāv-zay is senior B’s W)/a je-ha adj invariable, in lit, fig, elg usage / b vail  adj invariable (also Id) / c moh- ā adj m (f-i, n -âm) somewhat more informal than XI, Xib (also = ‘big, large, great’) // corr: XII only in ranges β and γ (except in 21-24, 30-32b); XI, Xia, Xib, Xic also apply in contexts not involving kinship.


XII. junior dhāk-- ā adj m (f-i, n -âm) as for XI: α, β, γ as for Xiα, Xiβ, Xiγ (which they match) mutatis mutandis /a kani-ṣṭha  adj invariable (to match Xia) (also = ‘inferior in quality, status’ correlating with ‘śre-ṣṭha, vari-ṣṭha resp)/b lahān adj invariable (to match XIc) (also = ‘small, little’)/c cho adj m (f-i, n -âm) with an overtone of endearment (applied only) to 6,7,8) (also = ‘tiny, little’)/d nav-i adj f, applied to 30a, 31, 33, 34, 34b, 42, 42a, 44, 44a (all f) = ‘one who has newly acquired that relationship with ego by virtue of marriage’ (also = ‘new’ with m –ā, n -âm) // corr: as for XI substituting XI for XII; XII, XIIa, XIIb, XIIc, XIId also apply  in contexts not involving kinship.  Cf.: dhāk-l-ā, lahān-ā  both adjj m (f-i, n, -âm) not standard; ‘seṇḍ-e-pha sb n ‘fruit on the very youngest branch at the tree-top’, (fig) ‘the youngest O of an elderly couple’.


XIII. step-sāvat-ra adj invariable, refers primarily to situations where two collateral consanguineals have simply a male (or, by extension, a female) rather than a couple as the immediate common ancestor; α Sb, B, Srresp P’s O, Sn, D other than Sb in 6, 7, 7b, 8, 8a, 21, 21a, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 30a, 31, 32, 32b, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 42a, 43, 43b, 44, 44a, 45, 45a (cf. the ranges γ, δ, ε of I ) (thus 21 cult- ā is F’s B, but ‘s āvat-ra + cult- ā is F’s P’s Sn other than F’s Sb) / β F, Mresp M’s Sp other than F, F’s Sp other than M in 1, 1a, 1d, 2, 2a, 11, 11a, 12, 12a, 13, 14, 36, 36a, 36b, 37, 37a, 46, 46a, 47, 47a (cf. the ranges of α , β of I) / γ (, Sn, Dresp Sp’s O, Sn, D other than O in 3, 3a, 3c, 4, 4a, 4d, 5, 5a, 5c, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19a, 20, 34, 34a, 34b, 35, 35a, 35b (where these terms occur more than once in the definition, as in 15-20, the first such term is to be replaced, thus 15 nāt-v-aṇḍa is O’s O, but sāvat-ra+ nāt-v-aṇḍa is O of (Sp’s O, other than ego’s O)/a sā-patna adj invariable, elg // corr: XIII; cf. oh-y ā sb m (=‘sāvat-ra+bāp), āyt-o-ā~ayt-ā sb m (=‘male ego’s W’s Sn by W’s earlier H’), both not standard.


XIV. adopted datt-ak adj invariable, applied to a consanguineal kin term, replacing the basis of birth by the basis of adoption (the Hindu rite of datta-vi-dhā-n sb n, that establishes P-Sn relationship); α F, M, SNresp adopted P’s O, Sn, D or resp P’s adopted O, Sn, D in 6, 7, 7b, 8, 8a // corr: XIV; cf. also the verbal idiom ‘ṇḍ-i+var+ghe-m = ‘to adopt (literally, to take into one’s lap)’.


XV. putative mān-l-el-ā verbal adj m (f-i, n -âm), replacing the basis of birth by that of an interpersonal understanding – ranging from the serious to the casual (cf. XIV; note the verb mān-m ‘to suppose; accept’); α F, M,O, Sn, D resp putative F, M, O, Sn, D in 1, 1a, 1d, 2, 2a, 7, 3, 3a, 3c, 4, 4a, 4d, 5, 5a, 5c, // β Sb, B, Sr resp putative Sb.  B, Sr or resp putative P’s O, Sn, D, or P’s putative O, Sn, D in 6, 7, 7b, 8, 8a, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 30a, 31, 32b, 42, 42a, 43, 43b (putative Sb relationship usually obtains between a male and a female or between two males) // corr: XV; a putative relationship may be super-imposed over an actual one, as when a female ego’s H’s M calls her her D; sometimes the putative relationship is expressed by the bare kin term, or by adj phrase formed by adding + sārkh-ā adj m (f-i, n -âm) = ‘like, resembling’ to its oblique, or by adv phrase formed by adding + c-ā + hikāṇ-im = ‘in loco – (gen.)’.


XVI a. ‘dudh + prefixed to 7, the combination = ‘ego’s wet-nurse’s Sn or male whose wet-nurse is ego’s M’ (dudh sb n = ‘milk’)/b guru prefixed to 7b the combination = ‘male ego’s guru’s sn or ego’s F’s male pupil or ego’s guru’s male pupil’ (guru sb m = ‘teacher, guru’ with corr śiṣṣa sb m= ‘pupil, disciple’)// corr: resp XVIa, XVIb;  these two operators render the basis of relationship even more tenuous thatn do XIV and XV ; nevertheless, some obligations are involved.  Composites like ‘varga + 7b, 8b (= ‘male, female classmate resp’), ‘vy-av-sāy + 7b (= ‘male in the same occupation as that of male ego’) will be ignored in this survey, since the elementary kin terms involved are here to be clearly taken in their extended senses outside the kin terms system.


XVII. illegitimate an-avras adj invariable used like XI, with 3, 3a, 3c, 4, 4a, 4d, 5, 5a, 5c, and with B, B1 below, the combination = ‘ego’s (esp male ego’s) descendant whose immediate (common) ancestor other than ego is not ego’s Sp’ / a dās-i + prefixed to 4a, the combination = ‘male ego’s Sn whose M is ego’s dās-i’  (dās-i sb f = ‘hired maid who is a member of the household (esp in a fuc set-up’) bkānin + prefixed to 4a, the combination = ‘female ego’s Sn born when she was unmarried’ (also kānin sb m in the same sense) // corr: none for XVII, XVIIa ; for XVIIb, occasionally ku’mār-i+ māt-ā sb f (= ‘unwed mother, literally virgin mother’) is used.


XVIII. neither illegitimate nor adopted nor putative avras  adj invariable used and applied like XVII, the combination = ‘ego’s (esp male ego’s) descendant whose immediate (common) ancestor other than ego is ego’s Sp (cf. XVIIIa and XIX)/ a kāyd-e-śir adj invariable, used like XI with 1, 1a, 1d, 2, 2a, and as for XVII, esp in legal usage; unlike XVIII, not opposed to XIV in overtone (also = ‘according or pertaining to law’) // corr: XVIII, XVIIIa with the corr of the elementary term when the combination is possible.


XIX. not step-, -german sakkh-ā adj m (f-i, n -âm) refers primarily to situations where two collateral consanguineals have a couple rather than one person as the immediate common ancestor (cf. XIII, which it matches, also has the same range of application, roughly any elementary term other than 9, 10, 33; also applied to any of these terms modified by I-XIIc, XX, XXa, XXb).  The combination, once closed by XIX, cannot be further expanded-specifically excluding I-X, XIII, XIIIa, XIV, XV, XVIa, XVIb and underlining that the term prefixed by XIX, is to be taken in its primary, unextended, unmodified sense.  // corr: XIX. Cf. sag-ā adj and sb m (f-i, n -âm), obsolete except in R2 below.


XX. serial order pahi-l-ā, dus-r-ā, tis-r-ā, ç av-th-ā, paç-v-ā, etc., ordinal numeral adj m (f-i, n -âm) applied to 3, 3a, 3c, 4, 4a, 4d, 5, 5a, 5c, 9, 9a, 10, 10a, 10d, 34, 34a, 35, 35a, 35b in order to narrow their reference to a specific place, 1st, 2nd, etc., in the order of seniority (as defined under XI α); the combination may be used as a general term as well as an apl of mention /a pratham, dvitīya, tritiya, caturtha, pancam, etc., ordinal numeral adjj invariable in the tatsama series, in lit or elg usage, applied to 3a, 4a, 4c, 5a, 9a, 10, 34a, 35a /b madh-l-ā adj m (f-i, n âm) as for XI with its ranges α, β, γ, = ‘middle’.  When XI, XXb, XII are applied in a given context, the implication is that we have three co-kinsmen, resp the eldest, the middle, and the youngest. // corr: none specifically; XX, XXa, XXb also apply in the contexts not involving kinship.


XXI. twin zuadj m (f -i, n -âm) used for narrowing the range of some consanguineal kin terms : α with 3, 3a, 3c, 4, 4a, 4d, 5, 5a, 5c, the combination either a general term or an apl of mention = (in the pl) ‘a couple (or couples) of twin offsprings’, (in the sg) ‘one out of a couple (or triplet, etc.) of twin offsprings’/β with 6, 7,7b, 8, 8b, the combination either a general term or an apl of mention = ‘Sb who belongs to the same couple (or triplet, etc.) of twin offsprings as the ego’ //corr : XXI ; cf. zum sb n=‘a couple of twin offsprings’, tim sb n ‘a triplet of twin offsprings’; Marathi has no specific terms for identical (‘born of the same ovum, so necessarily of the same sex’) and fraternal (‘born of different ova, not necessarily of the same sex’) twins.


Thirdly, we list the additional terms that are elementary in form but composite-like in meaning.  They are all sub referring to person or groups of persons.  They can be divided into three classes:  collective (A-H; referring to a group of kinsmen who bear some relationship to ego and who are to be taken collectively), reciprocal (; referring to a group whose members bear some relation with one another), and categorizing (K-R2 ; referring to a person bearing any one of a large range of relationships to ego).  (Note that the letter I is not used in this series so as to avoid confusion with I among the operators.


A.     ghar n married male ego’s family – that is his Pp, Sb(b), Sp(p), and O(o)

 living with him, male ego’s or unmarried female ego’s F and F’s family, married female ego’s Sp and Sp’s family (also = ‘house, dwelling, household’) / I cul f sometimes used in measuring degrees of collaterality (thus, a second cousin is removed by two culs from ego (also = ‘kitchen stove for burning wood, kitchen establishment as the center of a household’ ; cf.21 and I, with which it bears no etymological connection) // see under C.


B.     santat-ī f progeny, ego’s Oo collectively / I vam m ego’s descendants

 collectively (also G1)// cmb: B, BI with XVII, XVIII, XVIIIa.


            C. kuumba n married male ego’s dependent kins (normally, his W, unearning Snn, and unmarried Dd) (also Iod, G2 / I e’ka-tra + kuumba n Hindu undivided joint family, ego being the eldest male member (normally, ego, his Ww, unmarried Dd, Snn and Snn’s respective families) / 2 kabil-ā, zhanān-ā~janān-a, zhanān-khān-ā~janān-khānā all m, married male ego’s female dependent kinswomen (normally, his Ww, unmarried Dd, and Snn’s Ww ) (terms normally used only when ego is a Muslim, otherwise in facetious use only) / 3 pari-vār m, occasionally used, esp in contrast to Iod, corr : for A, C, C1 is kar-t-ā~’ker-t-ā+ puru m ‘eldest male member of a reference to settlement), samv-sār m,   pra-panca m (both with special reference to san-ny-ās’ ; the latter rather lit), pari-vār m, khal- â n (both esp referring to C1; the former rather that lit).


            D. j-o n ego’s P’s F (esp M’s F) and his ghar (A) (applied to ego’s F’s F and his ghar only when different from ego’s own ghar) / I pa-j-o n ego’s P’s P’s F (esp M’s M’s F) and his ghar (A) // The terms D, D1, E, F, F1, F2 can also be extended to the ghar- ā- âm (G) concerned, beside the ghar.


            E. māher n married female ego’s former ghar (A), the one at the time when she was unmarried // corr: P; see under D ; note further that E may also be extended to the whole circle of kin, neighbourhood, friendship during her unmarried state.


            F. sās-ar n married ego’s (esp married female ego’s) Sp’s ghar (A) (or māher (E), resp for male, female Sp) / I sāsu-r-vā n, sāsu-r-v ā -i f married male ego’s W’s māher (E)  2 j-o + sās-ar n married ego’s (esp married female ego’s) Sp’s aj-o (D) // corr: Q (married female ego) for F.


            G. ghar-ām n agnatic descent group, i.e., a group of persons tracing descent from a common historical or presumed or putative male ancestor entirely through males whether consanguineally or through adoption (see under XIV) and commonly bearing a common surname / I vam m in lit usage (also B1) /2 kuumba n in loose usage (also 1 od, C) / 3 ku, kula both n, resp elg and lit usage / 4 got, ga-got bot n, vaguer than G, G1, G3 // When we say x’s G, G1, G3, the x may be either any member or, specifically, the common ancestor ‘mu+puru m (literally ‘root-man’).  Cf. gotra n, in the technical usage of Hindu dharma-śāstra, exogamous agnatic descent group, which includes certain ghar- āms of the same subcaste and which bears a gotra-name, typically the name of a rii.  Note that all persons belonging to the same subcaste and the same gotra and bearing the same surname are normally presumed to belong to the same ghar-ām.


            H.  puh-i f generation, i.e., a group of persons descending from a common known ancestor and removed from that ancestor by the same number of steps (normally, this term is either restricted to persons belonging to the same ghar-ām or generalized to a whole community or society with a common unbroken tradition).


            J.  zo-p-âm n, H and W, couple, often as al of mention / 1 dām-pattya n, dam-pati n pl, lit, elg / 2 mehu n couple invited as guests on certain Hindu religious occasions (Cf.: 38, 39, 40) // Cf. : zom bridal couple at the wedding ; ga+ savāś-i n pl, as for 2, obsolete.


            K. bāndhav m rather lit, ego’s male agnatic consanguineal or quasi-consanguineal tracing relation through adoption (see under XIV) who is not in ego’s line of descent and whose degree of collaterality does not go beyond the third (see diagram on p.21) / 1 daś-ā-mt-l-ā adj m (f-i, n -âm) one who is obliged to observe Hindu sutak taboos for ten days if ego dies / 2 sa-piṇḍa adj invariable, dāyād sb m, in technical usage of Hindu dharma-śāstra, one who is obliged to observe sutak taboos if ego dies // corr : K, K1, K2, resp.


            L. kuumb-īya  m one who belongs to the same kuumba (C, C1) as ego // corr; L.


            M. pūrva-j m ancestor, usually from the fourth ascending generation upwards from ego / 1. pitar m pl, pitr-âm n pl, ego’s deceased consanguineal kinsmen to whom ego is obliged to make offerings at the Hindu ritual of śrāddha // N.


            N. vamvśa-j m descendant, usually from the fourth descending generation downwards from ego // corr: M.


            O. sam-bandh-i m affinal relation other than a female married into ego’s agnatic descent group, rather lit /1. soyr-ā m, rather ofd // Cf. the abstract terms soyr-ik f ‘relation between two soyr-ās, affinal relation between two ghar-āms (G)’;  śarir + sam-bandha m, ofd elg, literally ‘body-relation’ = ‘the relation between Spp and between their respective  ghar-āms  (G)’.


            P.  māher-vāś-i f female for whom a given ghar (G) is māher (E) is māher-vāś-i of that ghār // corr : E ; cf. the abstract term māher-pa sb n = ‘staying at one’s māher


           Q.  sāsu-r-vāś-i f female for whom a given ghar (G) is sās-ar (F) is sāsu-r-v-āś-i of that ghar (to match P)//corr; F; cf. the abstract term sāsu-r-vāś sb m = ‘the state of being a sāsu-r-vāś-i (usually with unpleasant suggestions of an ordeal and suffering)’.


            R. nāt-e-vāik  m, sometimes hpl, any relation (1-47) (other than 1-10, 15-20) with operators I-X, XIII, XIV, in any/ 1 āpta m, often hpl, elg / 2 sa’g-ā+’soyr-ā m any relation whether consanguineal (cf. XIX) or affinal (cf. 0I) // The abstract term nāt-âm  sb n is more comprehensive as it includes 1-10, 15-20; it may be further qualified (as also R, R1): by the epithets zava!+ç-ā m (= ‘near; describable by the bare elementary term’) and ‘dur+ç-ā m (= ‘distant; calling for the use of operators or periphrastic composites’) (f -i, n âm).  The epithet rakt-ā+ç-ā m (f -i, n -âm) qualifies R or the abstract term ; = ‘of blood; specifically, with the degree of collaterality from zero to three (see diagram on p.21).’8  Cf: also ‘soyr-ā+dhāyr-ā, āpteṣṭā, āpta+sva-kiya, all sbb m, the latter two in elg usage, all = ‘one who is a kinsman or a close friend’.


            Finally, we may briefly survey patterns for composite terms other than those already dealt with fully (for example, under 12c, 14a, 16a, 19b, 20a).


            (i) The elementary terms may be preceded by sequences of more that one operator subject to the following limitations of order and combinations (± symbolizes the possibility of leaving the slot unfilled):


             ± (XIII, XIIIa, XIX) ± (XI-XIIb, XX, XXb) ± (I-X, I-IV in any combination in ranges γ, δ, ε,)

            Or: ± (XIX) + (XXI)

            Or: + (XIIc, XIId, XIV – XVIIIa, Xxa)


            (This is of course subject to the overall limitations between each of the operators and each of the elementary terms set forth already.)  Thus, II + I + 6 ‘mām-e+culat+ bhāv-aṇḍa = ‘ego’s F’s (M’s B’s Sn)’s O’ (which is one way of being a second cousin).


            Some of the additional terms also admit of combination with operators (see under B; cf. also under R).


            (ii) More than one elementary term with or without operators may be linked by the postposition + ç-ā m (f-c-i, n –ç-âm) = ‘s’ so as to form longer composites.  Their obvious use is to express distant relationships which cannot be otherwise expressed (e.g., 5 + 43 mul-i+n + dir D’s (H’s B)) or distant aspects of relationships (e.g., 3 + Id mul-ān + ç-e+ va’il Oo’s F who will be ego’s H, see footnote 4; 10 + 43 bāy–ko+çā+’dir W’s (H’s B) who will be ego’s B).9  They can also be used, however, to replace ordinary terms where they are felt to be unsuitable for some reason (e.g. 5+4 mul-i+ç-ā’mul-g-ā D’s Sn in place of 17 nāt-u O’s Sn, which may be too general for some purposes).


            (iii) It is also possible to have coordinate composites linking more than one elementary term (the accent is always on the first word).


(a) Collective copulative composites: ‘ego’s (x+y)’ standing for ‘ego’s x(s) and the same ego’s y(s) taken collectively’


m pl : 2+1 ā-i+ bāp, 2d + 1 māy + bāp (usually fig), 4a + 17a putra + pavtra, 34 + 35 sun + zāvai, 37 + 36 sāsu + sās-r-e.


f pl : 5c + 34 lek-i + sun-ā


n pl: 2a + 1a māt-ā+ pit-ā (ofd variant māt-ā + pitar-âm), 3 + 10e mul-âm + mas-âm, 18 + 17 nāt + nāt-u, 38 + 39 mehu-ā+ mehu-i, 43 + 45 dir + naanda.


n pl, with the further implication that x and y are H and W: 7 + 42 bhāu + bhāv ~ zay, 7d + 42a dād-ā+vahin-i~dād-ā+ vayn-i, 11 + 13 āz-ā+āj-i, 12 + 14 pa-z-ā+ pa-j-i, 21 + 30 cult-ā+cult-i, 21a +30a kāk-ā+kāk-u~kāk-ā+kāk-i, 23 + 31 mām-ā+mam-i, 43+44 dir + zāu


(b) Collective cumulative composites: x and y are co-referent, the composite standing for ‘x and the like’.


m: 7 + 7b bhāu-band ego’s bandhav (K), usually in pl.


n: 3 + 3e mul + ba!, 3c + 3e por + bā! both meaning ‘ego’s descendant upto the third generation’ and neither used ever as apl in the singular.


(c) Reciprocal copulative composites : There is no reference to ego; x is x to y and y is y to x (there may be more than one x or y if the relationship permits that).


                m pl: 1 + 4d bāp + lek, 2d + 4d māy + lek, 21 + 28 cult-ā + puta(also cult-e + puta-e) , 23 + 26 mām-ā+ bhac-e, 36 + 35 sas-r-e + zāvai.


            f pl: 2d + 5c māy + lek-i 37 + 34 sāsu + sun-ā (also sāsv-ā + sun-ā), 45 + 42 nad-ā + bhāv-zay-ā.


            n pl : 1 + 5c bāp + lek, 2d + 3b māy + lek-r-âm, 7 + 8 bah-i + bhāu (also 7 + 6 bah-i + bhāv-aṇḍ-âm), 9 + 10 navr-ā + bāyko, 9a + 10a pati-patn-i.


            Comparable is also III + II + (6 or 7 or 8) respectively n pl; m pl, f pl āt-e+mam-e+bhāv-aṇḍm, āt-e+mām-e+bhāu, āt-e+mām-e+ bah-i-i, (all three homonymous with the plurals of the composites of patters (i))


            (d) Reciprocal reduplicate composites:


            m pl : 7 bh āu + bh āu, 41 u, + sāu, 46 vyāhi + vyāhi


            f pl : 8 bahi-i+bahi-i, 33 savt-i+savt-i, 44 zāv-ā+ zāv-ā, 47 vih-n-i+ vih--i.


We can compare with these the special use of the plurals of these elementary terms (7, 8, 33, 41, 44, 46, 47) and also of bhāv-aṇḍa (6) and of the composite terms (I or IV) + 6 or 7 or 8) in this reciprocal sense.  (In the terminology of Sanskrit grammar, the use of bhāu (pl) in the sense ‘a group of persons who are bhāu (brother) to each other’ is an example of eka-śea-dvandva (copulative with one element suppressed).)


            Having presented the corpus of data as fully and as methodically as possible, we can now proceed to make certain general observations.


            The data seems to lend itself to a division between core elements (i.e., 1 – 47 without 1a, etc., I-XXI without Xa, etc., A-R without A1, etc.) all of which can be used as general terms and the remaining peripheral elements (mostly qualified by rubrics like apl, ofd, nfg, fuc, elg, npu, always hpl).  The former seem to be more amenable to linguistic analysis and the latter more amenable to ethnographic analysis.


            Males are more readily addressed as hpl by ego, especially by female ego.  Between two females hpl is less common.  In many cases the uncertainties about hpl are resolved once and for all between two given persons.  This resolution may become difficult if an affinal or adoptive relationship is imposed on a previous relationship (whether of kinship or not).


            In general, elegant forms are going out of favour and used more for mock-respect.  They are less popular with females and children.


            Children brought up in undivided joint families or, as frequently happens in India, at their mother’s parental home, tend to take over kin-appellatives from younger adults or from other children in that ghar (A) – thus a child will call his F kāk-ā (21a) imitating his F’s B’s O or call his M vahin-i (42a) imitating his F’s younger B or āty-ā (22) imitating his M’s B’s O.


            If we apply the logical classification of relations as reflexive (x can be R to itself), symmetrical (if x is R to y, then y is R to x), transitive (if x is R to y and y is R to z, then x is R to z), it will be found that no kin term expresses a reflexive relation; that some express a symmetrical one (6, 33, 41, 44; composites formed with I, IV, XIII, XIV, XV, XIX, XX from these); and that the symmetrical terms are also transitive provided x is not identical with z.  Lastly, there are a few terms which don’t express a relation at all – they do not presuppose any ego; all reciprocal terms fall under this category.


            In conclusion, we list the principles according to which the kin terms are differentiated from one another and form a network:


            (a) The basis of kinship may be birth (blood or consanguineal) marriage (affinal) or adoption (adoptive) or a combinations of them.  In XVII and XVIII (illegitimate, legitimate) both birth and marriage are involved.  The consanguineal kin terms 1, 2, 3c, 6, 7, 8 may be extended to animals.


(b) Consanguineal relations are subject to an over-all limitation-kinship ceases after three generations (‘tin + pih-y-ā-n + ni + ‘nat-âm+tu-t-âm to use a common aphorism; cf. footnote 8).  This works along both the axes – the axis (or line) of descent and the axis of collaterality. (See diagram.)


(c)  Sex—male or female—is of course an important factor in differentiation.  The sex may be of the kinsman himself (commonly conveyed by the gender of the kin term), of the ego (as in 25-29), or of the linking kinsman (as in IIb, IIc, 21-24).  Sometimes the first and the second (as in 9-10), or the second and the third (as in 38, 39, 41, 43-45), or the first and the third (as in 30-32, 34-35, 40, 41), or all the three (as in 33) are interdependent.




                                    Ego’s               Degree             of                     Collaterality


                                    descent               1st                  2nd                                3rd



generations       3rd                   









Ego’s   generation           ego                           




generations       1st       








(d)  Seniority relation (by birth or by marriage as the case maybe) between ego and kinsman or between ego and liking kinsman seems to play only a marginal part in the system (7d, 8b, 42a, 43b, 44a and, of course, XI, XII, XX, XXb).


(e)  The mention of the linking kinsman and of the possibility of combining birth, marriage, and adoption serve to underline the principle of linkage—‘’s’ is as important a semantic element as ‘P’, ‘male’, etc.  The distinction between step- and -german depends on whether a couple or one person is the linking or immediate common ancestor.  If x is kin to y and y is kin to z, then x is at least a remote kin to y.  There are some relationships; however, that cannot be further resolved: P—O (blood), H—W (marriage), and adoptive P—adoptive O (Adoption).  With reference to certain types of relation, the principle of equivalence reinforces linkage—if x is R1 to y and z is R2 to y, then z is also R2 to x.  thus, R1 as W and R2 as bhāç(26) or puta-yā (28) or the equivalence of adoptive and consamguineal relationship in defining agnatic groups (see G, K) or the substitutions in the definitions of I-X, XIII-XV.  


It seems fairly clear that if we try to ‘generate’ all the kin terms out of the principles above, it will not be enough to operate with the simple logic of component and logical product : thus, while cult-ā (21) can be defined simply as a ‘consanguineal kinsman’ who is both ‘male’ and ‘of the first ascending generation’ and ‘of the first degree of collaterality’ and ‘linkable agnatically entirely through males’, out it will be difficult if not impossible to work out a parallel formula for bhāç-ā (26) or mehuṇ-ā (38, 40) or ‘mām-e+culat+bhāv-aṇḍa (II+I+6).


A fuller consideration of these ‘general observations’ may be reserved for some future occasion.




The term mā-I (cf. 2e, 8b) is also used as apl for step-M (XIII+2) by ego.


The term ‘dus-r-i+ā-i (XX+2) is often used by children or by adults in speaking to children for ego’s M’s junior co-W.


The term jāy-ā for W (cf. 10b) is very lit.





This was published in Transactions of the Linguistic Circle of Delhi.  Dr. Siddheshvan Varm Volume, 1959-60 (published 1962), p1-22.




1.             Floyd G. Loundsbury, A Semantic analysis of the Pawnee kinship usage, Language 32 (1956) 158 -94; Ward H. Goodenough, Componential analysis and the study of meeting, Language 32 (1956) 195- 216.


2.         The out-of-place or wrong use of elegant forms betrays the speaker’s genteelness or insecurity of status. If one used new-fangled forms in circles where they are not accepted as routine, one would arouse mild ridicule or irrigation.


3.             The description at the beginning of each division is applicable to all the subsidiary terms grouped in it (numbered Ia, Xa, AI, etc.), unless the contrary is stated. Additional general information at the end of a diveision is separated by//.


4.             This taboo applies even to a person having the same given name as the H! (A son is never given the same name as his father among Hindus.)  The exceptions are : nfg usage (particularly if it is a love-match or if there is no third party to listen) and the ceremonial custom of ukhā-ā among Hindus.  It will be observed, moreover, that there is really no obvious apl for ego’s use.  The difficulty is resolved by various stratagems.  One such is already given above (9f).  others are, for the purpose of mention : the use of svatā (as 3rd personal, hpl pronoun, ofd, otherwise=’myself, ourselves, etc.’) ; java!, i-k -e, ti-ke (all adverbs, ofd, otherwise respectively=’near’, ‘here’, ‘there’ ; ām-c-e+’h-e or simply h-e (literally ‘our this one’ or ‘this one’ hpl); or simply making normal 3rd personal hpl expressions do ; or periphrastic expressions of the type ‘so-and-so’s father’ (Id, Ie, If ; the reference to O may be left understood especially when ego is addressing O, or may be generalized by using 3, pl, thus mul-ā-n+c-e+va’il).  For the purpose of address : ego will make do with normal 2nd personal hpl expression (tumhi is common ; āpa is ofd) and normal attention getting mechanisms (like saying aho ‘hpl vocative particle’, i+‘a-te ‘I say (f.), ‘ayk-l-am+kā? ‘did you hear me?’ or jinglinjg one’s bangles).  The use of periphrases like ‘I dont’s see the shoes’ for ‘my husband is out’ is now ofd.  A way out useful for both mention and addresws is using H’s bare surname or bare title (ôkar); pro’fesar+sāheb, ‘ôkar+sāheb, etc., are used like sāheb (9f).  Colloquially, a person other than ego may also use h-e as in tu-zh-e+’he (literally ‘your this one’ ; hpl).


5.             Correspondingly H’s ceremonially uttering his W’s given name (she is often given a fresh name after marriage) in ukhā-ā is much less important (cf. footnote 4).  Unless ego uses the wife’s given name (whether maiden or married) for mention or address, he can adopt one of the following ways : for mention : 10, 10a, 10b, 10c, 10d, 10e, 10g, 10h (only 10, 10g, 10h are connon) ; ām-c-i ‘hi or simply hi (literally ‘our this one’ or ‘this one’ ; also hpl) ; or making do with normal 3rd personal expressions; or periphrastic expressions of the type ‘so-and-so’s mother’ (2 ; the reference to O may be generalized, using 3, pl); for address : ego makes do with normal 2nd personal expressions (tu sg, tumhi hpl) and normal attention-getting mechanisms (like saying aho ‘hpl vocative particle’, agâ ‘fsg vocative particle’, i--e+’bagh ‘look here’ or knocking lightly on the floor with the cane) cf. footnote 4).  Colloquially, a person other than ego may also use h-i as in tu-jh-i+’h-i (literally ‘your this one’, also hpl). 


6.             In ofd Hindu families, uttering the married given name of eldest Sn’s W is taboo : she is the incarnation of the goddess Lakmi for ego.  In this case ego can use 34b, or her maiden given name for mention and address ; and 5 for address.


7.             Western readers should perhaps be warned at this point, that, in Indian society, it is the female egos’ ‘mother-in-law’ that has attracted  the most folklore of satire and ridicule, of tales of persecution and woe.  The male ego’s ‘mother-in-law’ is on the most cordial terms with him—in order, perhaps, to protect her D from the D’s mother-in-law.  (Cf. also the figurative meaning of 47, 47a).


8.             Among Hindus of this speech community, marriage with one’s Sb, ancestor, or descendant is out of the question ; with one’s F’s Sr’s Sn or M’s B’s D is ofd but tolerated ; with a person of the same ghar-ā-âm (G) as oneself is not unknown but very rare; with one’s non-agnatic consanguineal (with the exception noted above) up to the third degree of collaterality is frowned upon; and with a person of the same gotra as oneself is prohibited by dharma-śāstra but is by no means unknown.


9.             The obsession for hunting kinship relations found esp in ofd women is often parodied by using exaggeratedly long composites of this type.